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Immediate and sustained effects of cobalt and zinc-containing pigments on macrophages

Julie Devcic 1 Manon Dussol 2 Véronique Collin-Faure 1 Julien Pérard 3 Daphna Fenel 4 Guy Schoehn 4 Marie Carrière 2 Thierry Rabilloud 1, * Bastien Dalzon 1, * 
* Corresponding author
1 PROMIT - Protéomique pour la Microbiologie, l'Immunologie et la Toxicologie
LCBM - UMR 5249 - Laboratoire de Chimie et Biologie des Métaux
2 CIBEST - Chimie Interface Biologie pour l’Environnement, la Santé et la Toxicologie
SYMMES - SYstèmes Moléculaires et nanoMatériaux pour l’Energie et la Santé : DRF/IRIG/SYMMES
3 BEE - BioEnergie et Environnement
LCBM - UMR 5249 - Laboratoire de Chimie et Biologie des Métaux
Abstract : Pigments are among the oldest nanoparticulate products known to mankind, and their use in tattoos is also very old. Nowadays, 25% of American people aged 18 to 50 are tattooed, which poses the question of the delayed effects of tattoos. In this article, we investigated three cobalt [Pigment Violet 14 (purple color)] or cobalt alloy pigments [Pigment Blue 28 (blue color), Pigment Green 14 (green color)], and one zinc pigment [Pigment White 4 (white color)] which constitute a wide range of colors found in tattoos. These pigments contain microparticles and a significant proportion of submicroparticles or nanoparticles (in either aggregate or free form). Because of the key role of macrophages in the scavenging of particulate materials, we tested the effects of cobalt- and zinc-based pigments on the J774A.1 macrophage cell line. In order to detect delayed effects, we compared two exposure schemes: acute exposure for 24 hours and an exposure for 24 hours followed by a 3-day post-exposure recovery period. The conjunction of these two schemes allowed for the investigation of the delayed or sustained effects of pigments. All pigments induced functional effects on macrophages, most of which were pigmentdependent. For example, Pigment Green 19, Pigment Blue 28, and Pigment White 4 showed a delayed alteration of the phagocytic capacity of cells. Moreover, all the pigments tested induced a slight but significant increase in tumor necrosis factor secretion. This effect, however, was transitory. Conversely, only Pigment Blue 28 induced both a short and sustained increase in interleukin 6 secretion. Results showed that in response to bacterial stimuli (LPS), the secretion of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 6 declined after exposure to pigments followed by a recovery period. For chemoattractant cytokines (MCP-1 or MIP-1a), delayed effects were observed with a secretion decreased in Frontiers in presence of Pigment Blue 28 and Pigment violet 14, both with or without LPS stimuli. The pigments also induced persisting changes in some important macrophage membrane markers such as CD11b, an integrin contributing to cell adhesion and immunological tolerance. In conclusion, the pigments induced functional disorders in macrophages, which, in some cases, persist long after exposure, even at non-toxic doses.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, July 19, 2022 - 4:48:05 PM
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Julie Devcic, Manon Dussol, Véronique Collin-Faure, Julien Pérard, Daphna Fenel, et al.. Immediate and sustained effects of cobalt and zinc-containing pigments on macrophages. Frontiers in Immunology, Frontiers, 2022, 13, pp.865239. ⟨10.3389/fimmu.2022.865239⟩. ⟨hal-03727817⟩

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