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Theses

Caractérisation des fumées issues de feux de végétation contrôlés : termes sources, phases d’émissions et impact sur les opérationnels

Abstract : This thesis fits in the context of the protection against wildfire risks. The main goal is the characterization of smoke and the definition of source terms and ignition criterions, available for modelization, to improve decision support tools for fire risk management. The second objective deals with the impact of smoke exposure on human health.Flammability of vegetation fuel was studied at laboratory scale using two calorimeters (cone and Large Scale Heat Release), for two species: Cistus monspeliensis and Pteridium aquilinum. The study of ignition properties and combustion dynamics of plants showed the influence of their thickness and structure on ignition time, ignition temperature and on heat release. A limit size of fuel particles for burning behavior was defined as well as an ignition criterion independent of fuel thickness and structure.Characterization of smoke was carried out at laboratory scale (cone and LSHR) and ground scale (prescribed burns). It highlights the importance of combustion phases for smoke composition, especially for aerosols. Large quantities of tars are released during the pre-ignition phase while soot are released in flaming phase. Emission factors of effluents characteristic of Mediterranean vegetation were obtained, that can be used in fire/atmosphere modelling. This study also emphasizes the scale effect on smoke production and composition.During ground fires, the characterization was conducted at two locations (in the smoke plume and in firefighters working atmosphere). The analysis of firefighters working atmosphere in prescribed burning conditions and the following of smoke exposure biomarkers (in exhaled breath and urines) showed an overexposure to toxic compounds (irritating, asphyxiating and CMR: carcinogenic, mutagenic and reprotoxic). Recommendations on prescribed burning practices (period, timetable, atmospheric conditions, positioning) were provided in order to attempt reducing the smoke exposure.
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Submitted on : Thursday, November 25, 2021 - 1:32:25 PM
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Lara Leonelli. Caractérisation des fumées issues de feux de végétation contrôlés : termes sources, phases d’émissions et impact sur les opérationnels. Sciences de la Terre. Université Pascal Paoli, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018CORT0003⟩. ⟨tel-03448827⟩

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