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Le jeu comme trompe-l'oeil et la dénégation

Abstract : Contrarily to M. Klein and D.W. Winnicott, who, generally speaking, look favorably on play in the cure, for us it appears impossible to talk about play in general without considering that there exist several types of play. Also, following the examples of J. Piaget for developmental psychology and R. Caillois for sociology, we propose a Freudian “structural classification of play,” and we distinguish three types of plays: play based on the mechanism of negation (Verneinung), play based on the mechanism of disavowal (Verleugnung), and play based on the mechanism of foreclosure (Verwerfung). This article develops the first type of play based on the mechanism of negation – which is what studies of play typically allude to – that we will call “trompe-l’œil” play. In order to illustrate this category, we will study the horse game played by “Little Hans” in Freud's famous analysis, which immediately follows the young patient's phobia. We maintain that the transition from phobic symptom to play is the result of an intervention of the Law. Play based on the mechanism of negation veils the reality of castration, and succeeds the child to move beyond merely being played upon by his fantasy – as in the case of the phobic symptom – allowing him instead to play with his fantasy. Here, the “trompe-l’œil” game can be considered therapeutic, or, at least, its emergence can be considered the effect of the analyst's therapeutic intervention.
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Marie Lenormand. Le jeu comme trompe-l'oeil et la dénégation. L'Évolution Psychiatrique, Elsevier, 2012, 77 (4), pp.619-629. ⟨10.1016/j.evopsy.2012.05.007⟩. ⟨hal-01333045⟩

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