B. Gryseels, K. Polman, J. Clerinx, and L. Kestens, Human schistosomiasis, The Lancet, vol.368, issue.9541, pp.1106-1118, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69440-3

A. Ross, P. Bartley, A. Sleigh, G. Olds, and Y. Li, Schistosomiasis, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.346, issue.16, pp.1212-1220, 2002.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJMra012396

D. Colley, A. Bustinduy, W. Secor, and C. King, Human schistosomiasis, The Lancet, vol.383, issue.9936, pp.2253-2264, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61949-2

S. Friedman, Mechanisms of Hepatic Fibrogenesis, Gastroenterology, vol.134, issue.6, pp.1655-1669, 2008.
DOI : 10.1053/j.gastro.2008.03.003

Z. Andrade, Schistosomiasis and liver fibrosis, Parasite Immunology, vol.37, issue.Suppl 1, pp.656-663, 2009.
DOI : 10.1590/S0074-02762006000900041

A. Dessein, D. Hillaire, N. Elwali, S. Marquet, and Q. Mohamed-ali, Severe Hepatic Fibrosis in Schistosoma mansoni Infection Is Controlled by a Major Locus That Is Closely Linked to the Interferon-?? Receptor Gene, The American Journal of Human Genetics, vol.65, issue.3, pp.709-721, 1999.
DOI : 10.1086/302526

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01595986

A. Badawi and M. Michael, Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in Egypt: the role of hepatitis- B viral infection and schistosomiasis, Anticancer Res, vol.19, pp.4565-4569, 1999.

V. Salvador-recatala and R. Greenberg, Calcium channels of schistosomes: unresolved questions and unexpected answers, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Membrane Transport and Signaling, vol.285, issue.1, pp.85-93, 2012.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M110.144725

M. Ferreira, R. De-oliveira, D. De-oliveira, C. Esteves, and S. Allegretti, Revealing praziquantel molecular targets using mass spectrometry imaging: an expeditious approach applied to Schistosoma mansoni, International Journal for Parasitology, vol.45, issue.6, pp.385-391, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijpara.2014.12.008

D. Mcmanus and A. Loukas, Current Status of Vaccines for Schistosomiasis, Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol.21, issue.1, pp.225-242, 2008.
DOI : 10.1128/CMR.00046-07

A. Siddiqui, B. Siddiqui, and L. Ganley-leal, Schistosomiasis vaccines, Human Vaccines, vol.157, issue.11, pp.1192-1197, 2011.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001166

URL : http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.4161/hv.7.11.17017?needAccess=true

P. Skelly, The use of imaging to detect schistosomes and diagnose schistosomiasis, Parasite Immunology, vol.7, issue.Pt 4, pp.295-301, 2013.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0034869

D. Olveda, R. Olveda, A. Lam, T. Chau, and Y. Li, Utility of Diagnostic Imaging in the Diagnosis and Management of Schistosomiasis, Clinical Microbiology: Open Access, vol.03, issue.02, p.25110719, 2014.
DOI : 10.4172/2327-5073.1000142

G. Esmat, A. Elsharkawy, W. Akel, A. Fouad, and K. Helal, Fibroscan of chronic HCV patients coinfected with schistosomiasis, Arab Journal of Gastroenterology, vol.14, issue.3, p.24206738, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ajg.2013.07.001

C. Bastard, M. Bosisio, M. Chabert, A. Kalopissis, and M. Mahrouf-yorgov, Transient micro-elastography: A novel non-invasive approach to measure liver stiffness in mice, World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol.17, issue.8, pp.968-975, 2011.
DOI : 10.3748/wjg.v17.i8.968

URL : http://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v17.i8.968

S. Martinez, G. Crespo, M. Navasa, and X. Forns, Noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis, Hepatology, vol.28, issue.1, pp.325-335, 2011.
DOI : 10.1155/2010/548263

J. Lambertucci, S. Silva, L. Andrade, L. De-queiroz, L. Carvalho et al., Imaging techniques in the evaluation of morbidity in schistosomiasis mansoni, Acta Tropica, vol.108, issue.2-3, p.18760990, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.actatropica.2008.07.009

L. Huwart, F. Peeters, R. Sinkus, L. Annet, and N. Salameh, Liver fibrosis: non-invasive assessment with MR elastography, NMR in Biomedicine, vol.67, issue.2, pp.173-179, 2006.
DOI : 10.1136/bmj.313.7059.744

M. Yin, J. Woollard, X. Wang, V. Torres, and P. Harris, Quantitative assessment of hepatic fibrosis in an animal model with magnetic resonance elastography, Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol.3, issue.2, pp.346-353, 2007.
DOI : 10.2214/ajr.178.6.1781411

URL : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mrm.21286/pdf

S. Ichikawa, U. Motosugi, H. Morisaka, K. Sano, and T. Ichikawa, Comparison of the diagnostic accuracies of magnetic resonance elastography and transient elastography for hepatic fibrosis, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol.33, issue.1, p.25308096, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.mri.2014.10.003

J. Chen, J. Talwalkar, M. Yin, K. Glaser, and S. Sanderson, Early Detection of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease by Using MR Elastography, Radiology, vol.259, issue.3, pp.749-756, 2011.
DOI : 10.1148/radiol.11101942

D. Aguirre, C. Behling, E. Alpert, T. Hassanein, and C. Sirlin, Liver Fibrosis: Noninvasive Diagnosis with Double Contrast Material???enhanced MR Imaging, Radiology, vol.239, issue.2, pp.425-437, 2006.
DOI : 10.1148/radiol.2392050505

M. Polasek, B. Fuchs, R. Uppal, D. Schuhle, and J. Alford, Molecular MR imaging of liver fibrosis: A feasibility study using rat and mouse models, Journal of Hepatology, vol.57, issue.3, pp.549-555, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jhep.2012.04.035

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc3423553?pdf=render

B. Fuchs, H. Wang, Y. Yang, L. Wei, and M. Polasek, Molecular MRI of collagen to diagnose and stage liver fibrosis, Journal of Hepatology, vol.59, issue.5, pp.992-998, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jhep.2013.06.026

URL : http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/1721.1/103914/1/Sinskey_Molecular%20MRI.pdf

L. Annet, F. Peeters, J. Abarca-quinones, I. Leclercq, and P. Moulin, Assessment of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in liver fibrosis, Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol.53, issue.1, pp.122-128, 2007.
DOI : 10.1148/radiology.171.1.2928521

URL : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jmri.20771/pdf

K. Sandrasegaran, F. Akisik, C. Lin, B. Tahir, and J. Rajan, Value of Diffusion-Weighted MRI for Assessing Liver Fibrosis and Cirrhosis, American Journal of Roentgenology, vol.193, issue.6, 2009.
DOI : 10.2214/AJR.09.2436

R. Do, H. Chandarana, E. Felker, C. Hajdu, and J. Babb, Diagnosis of Liver Fibrosis and Cirrhosis With Diffusion-Weighted Imaging: Value of Normalized Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Using the Spleen as Reference Organ, American Journal of Roentgenology, vol.195, issue.3, pp.671-676, 2010.
DOI : 10.2214/AJR.09.3448

L. Bihan, D. Turner, and R. , Intravoxel incoherent motion imaging using spin echoes, Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol.169, issue.2, pp.221-227, 1991.
DOI : 10.1148/radiology.169.1.3420252

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00350073

J. Yoon, J. Lee, J. Baek, C. Shin, and B. Kiefer, Evaluation of Hepatic Fibrosis Using Intravoxel Incoherent Motion in Diffusion-Weighted Liver MRI, Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, vol.38, issue.1, pp.110-116, 2014.
DOI : 10.1097/RCT.0b013e3182a589be

G. Hu, Q. Chan, X. Quan, X. Zhang, and Y. Li, Intravoxel incoherent motion MRI evaluation for the staging of liver fibrosis in a rat model, Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol.195, issue.2, 2014.
DOI : 10.2214/AJR.09.3448

S. Ichikawa, U. Motosugi, H. Morisaka, K. Sano, and T. Ichikawa, MRI-based staging of hepatic fibrosis: Comparison of intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging with magnetic resonance elastography, Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol.266, issue.1, 2014.
DOI : 10.1148/radiol.12120686

B. Kreft, F. Dombrowski, W. Block, R. Bachmann, and U. Pfeifer, Evaluation of Different Models of Experimentally Induced Liver Cirrhosis for MRI Research with Correlation to Histopathologic Findings, Investigative Radiology, vol.34, issue.5, pp.360-366, 1999.
DOI : 10.1097/00004424-199905000-00006

C. Aube, F. Moal, F. Oberti, J. Roux, and V. Croquet, Diagnosis and Measurement of Liver Fibrosis by MRI in Bile Duct Ligated Rats, Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol.226, issue.Suppl, pp.2601-2609, 2007.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1600-0676.1990.tb00428.x

A. Chow, D. Gao, S. Fan, Z. Qiao, and F. Lee, Measurement of liver T1 and T2 relaxation times in an experimental mouse model of liver fibrosis, Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol.113, issue.1, pp.152-158, 2012.
DOI : 10.1007/s11547-008-0239-8

R. Engelhardt, J. Langkowski, R. Fischer, P. Nielsen, and H. Kooijman, Liver iron quantification: Studies in aqueous iron solutions, iron overloaded rats, and patients with hereditary hemochromatosis, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol.12, issue.7, pp.999-1007, 1994.
DOI : 10.1016/0730-725X(94)91230-T

L. Anderson, S. Holden, B. Davis, E. Prescott, and C. Charrier, Cardiovascular T2-star (T2*) magnetic resonance for the early diagnosis of myocardial iron overload, European Heart Journal, vol.22, issue.23, pp.2171-2179, 2001.
DOI : 10.1053/euhj.2001.2822

URL : https://academic.oup.com/eurheartj/article-pdf/22/23/2171/17884504/2171.pdf

C. Ruehl-fehlert, B. Kittel, G. Morawietz, P. Deslex, and C. Keenan, Revised guides for organ sampling and trimming in rats and mice ??? Part 1, Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, vol.55, issue.2-3, pp.91-106, 2003.
DOI : 10.1078/0940-2993-00311

P. Bedossa and T. Poynard, An algorithm for the grading of activity in chronic hepatitis C, Hepatology, vol.24, issue.2, pp.289-293, 1996.
DOI : 10.1002/hep.510240201

N. Smirnov, Estimate of deviation between empirical distribution functions in two independent samples, Bulletin Moscow University, vol.2, pp.3-16, 1939.

M. Truscott, D. Evans, M. Gunn, and K. Hoffmann, Schistosoma mansoni Hemozoin Modulates Alternative Activation of Macrophages via Specific Suppression of Retnla Expression and Secretion, Infection and Immunity, vol.81, issue.1, pp.133-142, 2013.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.00701-12

URL : http://iai.asm.org/content/81/1/133.full.pdf

M. Kosaka, N. Owatari, Y. Seo, H. Kawakubo, and S. Harada, In Vivo NMR Micro-Imaging of Kidney and Liver of Mouse at 9.4 T., The Japanese Journal of Physiology, vol.50, issue.4, pp.463-467, 2000.
DOI : 10.2170/jjphysiol.50.463

I. Voieta, L. De-queiroz, L. Andrade, L. Silva, and V. Fontes, Imaging techniques and histology in the evaluation of liver fibrosis in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil: a comparative study, Mem??rias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol.19, issue.4, pp.414-421, 2010.
DOI : 10.1097/00004728-199509000-00022

S. Anderson, H. Jara, A. Ozonoff, M. O-'brien, and J. Hamilton, Effect of disease progression on liver apparent diffusion coefficient and T2 values in a murine model of hepatic fibrosis at 11.7 Tesla MRI, Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol.62, issue.Suppl 1, pp.140-146, 2012.
DOI : 10.1002/mrm.21977

S. Maillard, R. Jones, C. Owens, C. Pilkington, and P. Woo, Quantitative assessment of MRI T2 relaxation time of thigh muscles in juvenile dermatomyositis, Rheumatology, vol.43, issue.5, pp.603-608, 2004.
DOI : 10.1093/rheumatology/keh130

H. Cheng, N. Stikov, N. Ghugre, and G. Wright, Practical medical applications of quantitative MR relaxometry, Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol.27, issue.Suppl 1, pp.805-824, 2012.
DOI : 10.1002/jmri.21345

J. Li, E. Holmes, J. Saric, J. Keiser, and S. Dirnhofer, Metabolic profiling of a Schistosoma mansoni infection in mouse tissues using magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, International Journal for Parasitology, vol.39, issue.5, pp.547-558, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijpara.2008.10.010

M. Takeuchi, M. Sekino, N. Iriguchi, and S. Ueno, Dependence of the Spin-Spin Relaxation Time of Water in Collagen Gels on Collagen Fiber Directions, Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences, vol.3, issue.4, pp.153-157, 2004.
DOI : 10.2463/mrms.3.153

C. Wu, M. Giambrone, D. Howard, M. Rojkind, and G. Wu, The Nature of the Collagen in Hepatic Fibrosis in Advanced Murine Schistosomiasis, Hepatology, vol.59, issue.3, pp.366-371, 1982.
DOI : 10.1002/hep.1840020313

L. Siqueira, M. Chew, P. Hahn, G. Boland, and L. White, T2 relaxation time as a surrogate marker of liver fibrosis, 2010.