M. Haïssaguerre, P. Jaïs, and D. C. Shah, Spontaneous initiation of atrial fibrillation by ectopic beats originating in the pulmonary veins, The New England Journal of Medicine, vol.339, issue.10, pp.659-666, 1998.

W. Lin, C. Tai, and M. Hsieh, Catheter ablation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation initiated by non-pulmonary vein ectopy, Circulation, vol.107, issue.25, pp.3176-3183, 2003.

P. B. Lim, L. C. Malcolme-lawes, and T. Stuber, Intrinsic cardiac autonomic stimulation induces pulmonary vein ectopy and triggers atrial fibrillation in humans, Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, vol.22, issue.6, pp.638-646, 2011.

P. B. Lim, L. C. Malcolme-lawes, and T. Stuber, Stimulation of the intrinsic cardiac autonomic nervous system results in a gradient of fibrillatory cycle length shortening across the atria during atrial fibrillation in humans, Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, vol.22, issue.11, pp.1224-1231, 2011.

L. C. Malcolme-lawes, P. B. Lim, and I. Wright, Characterization of the left atrial neural network and its impact on autonomic modification procedures, Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, vol.6, issue.3, pp.632-640, 2013.

M. Bettoni and M. Zimmermann, Autonomic tone variations before the onset of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, Circulation, vol.105, issue.23, pp.2753-2759, 2002.

Y. Hou, Q. Zhou, and S. S. Po, Neuromodulation for cardiac arrhythmia, Heart Rhythm, vol.13, issue.2, pp.584-592, 2016.

T. Tomita, M. Takei, and Y. Saikawa, Role of autonomic tone in the initiation and termination of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in patients without structural heart disease, Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, vol.14, issue.6, pp.559-564, 2003.

P. Schauerte, B. J. Scherlag, and J. Pitha, Catheter ablation of cardiac autonomic nerves for prevention of vagal atrial fibrillation, Circulation, vol.102, issue.22, pp.2774-2780, 2000.

Y. Hou, B. J. Scherlag, and J. Lin, Ganglionated plexi modulate extrinsic cardiac autonomic nerve input: effects on sinus rate, atrioventricular conduction, refractoriness, and inducibility of atrial fibrillation, Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol.50, issue.1, pp.61-68, 2007.

J. A. Armour, D. A. Murphy, B. Yuan, S. Macdonald, and D. A. Hopkins, Gross and microscopic anatomy of the human intrinsic cardiac nervous system, Anatomical Record, vol.247, issue.2, pp.289-298, 1997.

H. Calkins, K. H. Kuck, and R. Cappato, 2012 HRS/EHRA/ ECAS Expert Consensus Statement on Catheter and Surgical Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation: recommendations for patient selection, procedural techniques, patient management and follow-up, definitions, endpoints, and research trial design, Europace, vol.14, issue.4, pp.528-606, 2012.

J. G. Andrade, M. Dubuc, and P. G. Guerra, Cryoballoon ablation for atrial fibrillation, Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal, vol.12, issue.2, pp.39-53, 2012.

G. Chierchia, G. D. Giovanni, and G. Ciconte, Secondgeneration cryoballoon ablation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: 1-year follow-up, Europace, vol.16, issue.5, pp.639-644, 2014.

R. P. Martins, D. Hamon, and O. Césari, Safety and efficacy of a second-generation cryoballoon in the ablation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, Heart Rhythm, vol.11, issue.3, pp.386-393, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01010732

A. Fürnkranz, S. Bordignon, and B. Schmidt, Improved procedural efficacy of pulmonary vein isolation using the novel second-generation cryoballoon, Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, vol.24, issue.5, pp.492-497, 2013.

A. Fürnkranz, S. Bordignon, and D. Dugo, Improved 1-year clinical success rate of pulmonary vein isolation with the second-generation cryoballoon in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, vol.25, issue.8, pp.840-844, 2014.

G. D. Giovanni, K. Wauters, and G. Chierchia, Oneyear follow-up after single procedure cryoballoon ablation: a comparison between the first and second generation balloon, Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, vol.25, issue.8, pp.834-839, 2014.

C. Pappone, V. Santinelli, and F. Manguso, Pulmonary vein denervation enhances long-term benefit after circumferential ablation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, Circulation, vol.109, issue.3, pp.327-334, 2004.

Y. Zhang, Z. Wang, and Y. Zhang, Efficacy of cardiac autonomic denervation for atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis, Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, vol.23, issue.6, pp.592-600, 2012.

D. G. Katritsis, E. Pokushalov, and A. Romanov, Autonomic denervation added to pulmonary vein isolation for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: a randomized clinical trial, Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol.62, issue.24, pp.2318-2325, 2013.

E. Pokushalov, A. Romanov, and S. Artyomenko, Ganglionated plexi ablation directed by high-frequency stimulation and complex fractionated atrial electrograms for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, vol.35, issue.7, pp.776-784, 2012.

K. Higuchi, M. Akkaya, and M. Koopmann, The effect of fat pad modification during ablation of atrial fibrillation: late gadolinium enhancement MRI analysis, Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, vol.36, issue.4, pp.467-476, 2013.

K. Kang, T. H. Kim, and J. Park, Long-term changes in heart rate variability after radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation: 1-year follow-up study with irrigation tip catheter, Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, vol.25, issue.7, pp.693-700, 2014.

K. Wang, D. Chang, and Z. Chu, Denervation as a common mechanism underlying different pulmonary vein isolation strategies for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: evidenced by heart rate variability after ablation, The Scientific World Journal, vol.2013, 2013.

H. Oswald, G. Klein, T. Koenig, U. Luesebrink, D. Duncker et al., Cryoballoon pulmonary vein isolation temporarily modulates the intrinsic cardiac autonomic nervous system, Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology, vol.29, issue.1, pp.57-62, 2010.

H. Yorgun, K. Aytemir, U. Canpolat, L. ?ahiner, E. B. Kaya et al., Additional benefit of cryoballoon-based atrial fibrillation ablation beyond pulmonary vein isolation: modification of ganglionated plexi, Europace, vol.16, issue.5, pp.645-651, 2014.

K. Aytemir, K. M. Gurses, and M. U. Yalcin, Safety and efficacy outcomes in patients undergoing pulmonary vein isolation with second-generation cryoballoon, Europace, vol.17, issue.3, pp.379-387, 2015.

F. Franceschi, L. Koutbi, and E. Gitenay, Electromyographic monitoring for prevention of phrenic nerve palsy in secondgeneration cryoballoon procedures, Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, vol.8, issue.2, pp.303-307, 2015.

S. Sakamoto, R. B. Schuessler, A. M. Lee, A. Aziz, S. C. Lall et al., Vagal denervation and reinnervation after ablation of ganglionated plexi, Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol.139, issue.2, pp.444-452, 2010.

M. Hirose, Z. Leatmanoratn, K. R. Laurita, and M. D. Carlson, Partial vagal denervation increases vulnerability to vagally induced atrial fibrillation, Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, vol.13, issue.12, pp.1272-1279, 2002.