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L'apport de l'archéologie des matériaux aux problèmes de chronologie des inondations du XXème siècle autour de la Méditerranée

Abstract : Catastrophic nature of mediterranean France floods of the XXth century last quarter have been specially watched at by autorities. To improve their prediction, it appears necessary to try to reconstitute their recent history, in particular during the XXth century. Sevral methods were efficiently used : archaeological method, archives research performed as soon as the XIXth century (Champion, 1863), thermoluminescence and O.S.L., and very recent cosmonucleides analysis for the second part of the XXth century (Bonté et al., 2002). Nevertheless, use of material included in the overbank alluviums seems efficient as well if it is possible to joint it with an historical knowledge of those floods. In fact, recently used or invented material allow to attribute a maximum age to the alluviums : it is the case of "classical" materials such as the Digoin earthenware in the Gardon exceptional flood plain, as well as other materials such as tar (in the wadis exceptional flood plains of central and southern Tunisia) or plastic (in the wadis flood plains in Tunisia and in the Ognon flood plain (Hérault département)). Some characteristic things are also used : electric insulator (Ognon river), tea bags and tomato tins (Tunisia), plastic oil bottle (wadi Ouerrha, Morocco) combined with the known chronology of floods, those materials and things allowed us to attribute some alluvial deposits to the 1929 and 1958 catastrophic floods in Languedoc and 1969 exceptional flood in Central and South Tunisia.
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Jean-Louis Ballais, Virginie Delorme-Laurent, Hélène Aimon, Florent Delorme, Noômène Fehri, et al.. L'apport de l'archéologie des matériaux aux problèmes de chronologie des inondations du XXème siècle autour de la Méditerranée. Archeosciences, revue d'Archéométrie, G.M.P.C.A./Presses universitaires de Rennes, 2005, 29, pp.163-166. ⟨hal-01570192⟩

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