Comparisons between high-resolution profiles of squared refractive index gradient <i>M</i><sup>2</sup> measured by the Middle and Upper Atmosphere Radar and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) during the Shigaraki UAV-Radar Experiment 2015 campaign

Abstract : New comparisons between the square of the generalized potential refractive index gradient M 2 , estimated from the very high-frequency (VHF) Middle and Upper Atmosphere (MU) Radar, located at Shigaraki, Japan, and un-manned aerial vehicle (UAV) measurements are presented. These comparisons were performed at unprecedented temporal and range resolutions (1–4 min and ∼ 20 m, respectively) in the altitude range ∼ 1.27–4.5 km from simultaneous and nearly collocated measurements made during the ShUREX (Shigaraki UAV-Radar Experiment) 2015 campaign. Seven consecutive UAV flights made during daytime on 7 June 2015 were used for this purpose. The MU Radar was operated in range imaging mode for improving the range resolution at vertical incidence (typically a few tens of meters). The proportionality of the radar echo power to M 2 is reported for the first time at such high time and range resolutions for stratified conditions for which Fresnel scatter or a reflection mechanism is expected. In more complex features obtained for a range of turbulent layers generated by shear instabilities or associated with convective cloud cells, M 2 estimated from UAV data does not reproduce observed radar echo power profiles. Proposed interpretations of this discrepancy are presented.
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Hubert Luce, Lakshmi Kantha, Hiroyuki Hashiguchi, Dale Lawrence, Masanori Yabuki, et al.. Comparisons between high-resolution profiles of squared refractive index gradient <i>M</i><sup>2</sup> measured by the Middle and Upper Atmosphere Radar and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) during the Shigaraki UAV-Radar Experiment 2015 campaign. Annales Geophysicae, European Geosciences Union, 2017, 35 (3), pp.423 - 441. ⟨10.5194/angeo-35-423-2017⟩. ⟨hal-01621967⟩

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