HIV-1 Infection and First Line ART Induced Differential Responses in Mitochondria from Blood Lymphocytes and Monocytes: The ANRS EP45 “Aging” Study

Abstract : Background: The ANRS EP45 “Aging” study investigates the cellular mechanisms involved in the accelerated aging of HIV-1 infected and treated patients. The data reported focus on mitochondria, organelles known to be involved in cell senescence. Methods: 49 HIV-1 infected patients untreated with antiretroviral therapy, together with 49 seronegative age- and sex-matched control subjects and 81 HIV-1 infected and treated patients, were recruited by 3 AIDS centres (Marseille, Montpellier, Nice; France; http://clinicaltrials.gov/, NCT01038999). In more than 88% of treated patients, the viral load was <40 copies/ml and the CD4+ cell count was >500/mm3. ROS (reactive oxygen species) production and ΔΨm (inner membrane potential) were measured by flow cytometry in blood lymphocytes and monocytes (functional parameters). Three mitochondrial network quantitative morphological parameters were computed using confocal microscopy and image analysis. Three PBMC mitochondrial proteins (porin and subunits 2 and 4 of cytochrome C oxidase encoded by mtDNA or nuclear DNA, respectively) were analysed by western blotting. Results: Quantitative changes in PBMC mitochondrial proteins were not induced by either HIV-1 infection or ART. Discriminant analysis integrating functional (ROS production and ΔΨm) or morphological (network volume density, fragmentation and branching) parameters revealed HIV-1 infection and ART differential effects according to cell type. First line ART tended to rescue lymphocyte mitochondrial parameters altered by viral infection, but induced slight changes in monocytes. No statistical difference was found between the effects of three ART regimens on mitochondrial parameters. Correlations between functional parameters and viral load confirmed the damaging effects of HIV-1 in lymphocyte mitochondria. Conclusions: In patients considered to be clinically stable, mitochondria exhibited functional and morphological modifications in PBMCs resulting from either direct or indirect effects of HIV-1 infection (lymphocytes), or from first line ART (monocytes). Together with other tissue impairments, these changes may contribute to global aging.
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Sophie Perrin, Jonathan Cremer, Patrice Roll, Olivia Faucher, Amélie Menard, et al.. HIV-1 Infection and First Line ART Induced Differential Responses in Mitochondria from Blood Lymphocytes and Monocytes: The ANRS EP45 “Aging” Study. PLoS ONE, Public Library of Science, 2012, 7 (7), pp.e41129. ⟨http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0041129⟩. ⟨10.1371/journal.pone.0041129⟩. ⟨hal-01646453⟩

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