A. Alitolppa-niitamo, Somali youth in the context of schooling in metropolitan Helsinki: a framework for assessing variability in educational performance, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, vol.31, issue.4, pp.81-106, 2004.
DOI : 10.2307/2547421

P. Bevelander and J. Veenman, Variation in Perspective: The Employment Success of Ethnic Minority Males in the Netherlands, 1988-2002, International Migration, vol.30, issue.2, pp.35-63, 1988.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-349-15723-5

P. Bourdieu, The forms of capital, Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology and Education, pp.241-258, 1986.

C. Charles, Transnationalism in the Construct of Haitian Migrants' Racial Categories of Identity in New York City., Towards a Transnational Perspective on Migration: Race, Class, Ethnicity, and Nationalism Reconsidered, pp.101-123, 1992.
DOI : 10.2307/466410

M. Chelpi-den-hamer, Migration patterns of West African migrants in the Netherlands and influence of their support networks, 2005.

G. Courade, Zoom sur? Focus on?, Politique Africaine, vol.67, pp.21-30, 1997.

G. Engbersen, The unanticipated consequences of panopticon Europe: residence strategies of illegal immigrants, Controlling a New Migration World, pp.222-246, 2001.

G. Engbersen and J. Van-der-leun, The social construction of illegality and criminality, European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, vol.9, issue.1, pp.51-70, 2001.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1011259422222

M. Granovetter, The Strength of Weak Ties: A Network Theory Revisited, Sociological Theory, vol.1, pp.201-233, 1983.
DOI : 10.2307/202051

L. E. Guarnizo, A. Sanchez, and E. Roach, Mistrust, fragmented solidarity, and transnational migration: Colombians in New York City and Los Angeles, Ethnic and Racial Studies, vol.22, issue.2, pp.367-396, 1999.
DOI : 10.1080/014198799329521

L. E. Guarnizo, A. Portes, and W. Haller, Assimilation and Transnationalism: Determinants of Transnational Political Action among Contemporary Migrants, American Journal of Sociology, vol.108, issue.6, pp.1211-1248, 2003.
DOI : 10.1086/375195

D. Jerrome, R??sum??, Africa, vol.2, issue.04, pp.369-379, 1978.
DOI : 10.1525/aa.1961.63.2.02a00050

K. Kuagbenou and V. , Integration ou assimilation: l'épreuve des faits Integration or assimilation : which in practice ?, Politique Africaine, vol.67, pp.31-40, 1997.

M. Marques, R. Santos, and F. Araujo, Ariadne's thread: Cape Verdean women in transnational webs, Global Networks, vol.1, issue.3, pp.283-306, 2001.
DOI : 10.1111/1471-0374.00017

D. S. Massey, Theory of migration, International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, pp.9828-9834, 2001.

V. Mazzucato, Asante transnational relations: historical renegotiation or changing structure of social relationships? " , Paper presented at CERES Summer School Ghanaian migrants' double engagement: a transnational view of development and integration policies The role of transnational networks and legal status in securing a living: Ghanaian migrants in the Netherlands, Working paper presented at the COMPAS Annual International Conference 2006 'International Labour Migration: In Whose Interests, pp.23-26, 2003.

V. Mazzucato, Transcending the nation, Globalization and Development. Themes and Concepts in Current Research, pp.131-162, 2004.
DOI : 10.1007/1-4020-2475-4_6

. De-ghanese-gemeenschaap-in-amsterdam, The emancipation of the Ghanaian Community in Amsterdam, OBEE Consultancy

A. Portes, Social Capital: Its Origins and Applications in Modern Sociology, Annual Review of Sociology, vol.24, issue.1, pp.1-24, 1998.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.soc.24.1.1

A. Portes and L. E. Guarnizo, Capitalistas del Tropico: La Inmigracion en los Estados Unidos y el Desarrollo de la Pequena Empresa en la Republica Dominicana, Tropical Capitalists: U.S.-Bound Immigration and Small Enterprise Development in the Dominican Republic, 1991.

A. Portes, L. E. Guarnizo, and W. Haller, Transnational Entrepreneurs: An Alternative Form of Immigrant Economic Adaptation, American Sociological Review, vol.67, issue.2, pp.278-298, 2002.
DOI : 10.2307/3088896

B. Riccio, More than a trade diaspora ? Senegalese transnational experiences in Emilia- Romagna (Italy), pp.95-110, 2003.

M. P. Smith, Transnational localities: community, technology and the politics of membership within the context of Mexico and US migration, Transnationalism from below, pp.196-238, 1998.

D. Styan, La nouvelle vague? recent Francophone African settlement in London, pp.17-36, 2003.

M. Woolcock and D. Narayan, Social Capital: Implications for Development Theory, Research, and Policy, The World Bank Research Observer, vol.15, issue.2, 1999.
DOI : 10.1093/wbro/15.2.225