Flavodiiron Proteins Promote Fast and Transient O 2 Photoreduction in Chlamydomonas

Abstract : During oxygenic photosynthesis, the reducing power generated by light energy conversion is mainly used to reduce carbon dioxide. In bacteria and archae, flavodiiron (Flv) proteins catalyze O 2 or NO reduction, thus protecting cells against oxidative or nitrosative stress. These proteins are found in cyanobacteria, mosses, and microalgae, but have been lost in angiosperms. Here, we used chlorophyll fluorescence and oxygen exchange measurement using [ 18 O]-labeled O 2 and a membrane inlet mass spectrometer to characterize Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flvB insertion mutants devoid of both FlvB and FlvA proteins. We show that Flv proteins are involved in a photo-dependent electron flow to oxygen, which drives most of the photosynthetic electron flow during the induction of photosynthesis. As a consequence, the chlorophyll fluorescence patterns are strongly affected in flvB mutants during a light transient, showing a lower PSII operating yield and a slower nonphotochemical quenching induction. Photoautotrophic growth of flvB mutants was indistinguishable from the wild type under constant light, but severely impaired under fluctuating light due to PSI photo damage. Remarkably, net photosynthesis of flv mutants was higher than in the wild type during the initial hour of a fluctuating light regime, but this advantage vanished under long-term exposure, and turned into PSI photo damage, thus explaining the marked growth retardation observed in these conditions. We conclude that the C. reinhardtii Flv participates in a Mehler-like reduction of O 2 , which drives a large part of the photosynthetic electron flow during a light transient and is thus critical for growth under fluctuating light regimes.
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Plant Physiology, American Society of Plant Biologists, 2017, 174 (3), pp.1825-1836. 〈10.1104/pp.17.00421〉
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Frédéric Chaux, Adrien Burlacot, Malika Mekhalfi, Pascaline Auroy, Stéphanie Blangy, et al.. Flavodiiron Proteins Promote Fast and Transient O 2 Photoreduction in Chlamydomonas. Plant Physiology, American Society of Plant Biologists, 2017, 174 (3), pp.1825-1836. 〈10.1104/pp.17.00421〉. 〈hal-01668170〉

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