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Glyoxal oxidases: their nature and properties

Abstract : H2O2 has been found to be required for the activity of the main microbial enzymes responsible for lignin oxidative cleavage, peroxidases. Along with other small radicals, it is implicated in the early attack of plant biomass by fungi. Among the few extracellular H2O2-generating enzymes known are the glyoxal oxidases (GLOX). GLOX is a copper-containing enzyme, sharing high similarity at the level of active site structure and chemistry with galactose oxidase. Genes encoding GLOX enzymes are widely distributed among wood-degrading fungi especially white-rot degraders, plant pathogenic and symbiotic fungi. GLOX has also been identified in plants. Although widely distributed, only few examples of characterized GLOX exist. The first characterized fungal GLOX was isolated from Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The GLOX from Utilago maydis has a role in filamentous growth and pathogenicity. More recently, two other glyoxal oxidases from the fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus were also characterized. In plants, GLOX from Vitis pseudor-eticulata was found to be implicated in grapevine defence mechanisms. Fungal GLOX were found to be activated by peroxidases in vitro suggesting a synergistic and regulatory relationship between these enzymes. The substrates oxidized by GLOX are mainly aldehydes generated during lignin and carbohydrates degradation. The reactions catalysed by this enzyme such as the oxidation of toxic molecules and the production of valuable compounds (organic acids) makes GLOX a promising target for biotechnological applications. This aspect on GLOX remains new and needs to be investigated.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, December 20, 2017 - 3:32:41 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, May 27, 2020 - 3:20:32 AM

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Marianne Daou, Craig B. Faulds. Glyoxal oxidases: their nature and properties. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Springer Verlag, 2017, 33 (5), ⟨10.1007/s11274-017-2254-1⟩. ⟨hal-01669106⟩

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