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SFE/SFEDP adrenal insufficiency French consensus: Introduction and handbook

Yves Reznik 1, * Pascal Barat 2 Jérôme Bertherat 3 Claire Bouvattier 4 Frederic Castinetti 5 Olivier Chabre 6 Philippe Chanson 7, 8 Christine Cortet 9 Brigitte Delemer 10 Bernard Goichot 11 Damien Gruson 12 Laurence Guignat 3 Emmanuelle Proust-Lemoine 13 Marie-Laure Raffin Sanson 14, 15 Rachel Reynaud 16 Dinane Samara Boustani 17 Dominique Simon 18 Antoine Tabarin 19 Delphine Zenaty 18
Abstract : The French endocrinology society (SFE) and the French pediatric endocrinology society (DFSDP) have drawn up recommendations for the management of primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency in the adult and child, based on an analysis of the literature by 19 experts in 6 work-groups. A diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency should be suspected in the presence of a number of non-specific symptoms except hyperpigmentation which is observed in primary adrenal insufficiency. Diagnosis rely on plasma cortisol and ACTH measurement at 8am and/or the cortisol increase after synacthen administration. When there is a persistant doubt of secondary adrenal insufficiency, insulin hypoglycemia test should be carried out in adults, adolescents and children older than 2 years. For determining the cause of primary adrenal insufficiency, measurement of anti-21-hydroxylase antibodies is the initial testing. An adrenal CT scan should be performed if auto-antibody tests are negative, then assay for very long (Y. Reznik). chain fatty acids is recommended in young males. In children, a genetic anomaly is generally found, most often congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In the case of isolated corticotropin (ACTH) insufficiency, it is recommended to first eliminate corticosteroid-induced adrenal insufficiency, then perform an hypothalamic-pituitary MRI. Acute adrenal insufficiency is a serious condition, a gastrointestinal infection being the most frequently reported initiating factor. After blood sampling for cortisol and ACTH assay, treatment should be commenced by parenteral hydrocortisone hemisuccinate together with the correction of hypoglycemia and hypovolemia. Prevention of acute adrenal crisis requires an education of the patient and/or parent in the case of pediatric patients and the development of educational programs. Treatment of adrenal insufficiency is based on the use of hydrocortisone given at the lowest possible dose, administered several times per day. Mineralocorticoid replacement is often necessary for primary adrenal insufficiency but not for corticotroph deficiency. Androgen replacement by DHEA may be offered in certain conditions. Monitoring is based on the detection of signs of under-and over-dosage and on the diagnosis of associated auto-immune disorders.
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Yves Reznik, Pascal Barat, Jérôme Bertherat, Claire Bouvattier, Frederic Castinetti, et al.. SFE/SFEDP adrenal insufficiency French consensus: Introduction and handbook. Annales d'Endocrinologie, Elsevier Masson, 2018, 79 (1), pp.1 - 22. ⟨10.1016/j.ando.2017.12.001⟩. ⟨hal-01724190⟩

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