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Editorial: NK Cell Subsets in Health and Disease: New Developments

Abstract : Editorial on the Research Topic NK Cell Subsets in Health and Disease: New Developments Natural killer (NK) cells were discovered ca 1975, as the first group of lymphoid cells that were neither T cells nor B cells. Since then, the dissection of the biology of NK cells has been growing exponentially with many seminal discoveries from the identification of MHC class I-specific inhibi-tory receptors to the discovery of receptor-ligand pairs involved in NK cell activation and to the manipulation of NK cells in cancer. In this research topic, we asked a group of thought leaders in NK cell biology to review recent advances in their origins and biology, and their roles in cancer, infection, and inflammation. Together, these 25 articles provide a timely survey of NK cells as critical immunologic components of health and disease. They will hopefully prompt further dialog and developments in basic and translational immunology. NK CEll oriGiNS aNd BioloGY Nowadays, NK cells are recognized to belong to the family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) that include other subsets of lymphoid cells, such as Lymphoid Tissue-inducer cells (LTi), ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3 (Jiao et al.). Human NK cells normally constitute 5-15% of human peripheral blood (PB) lymphocytes. Human PB NK cells can be distinguished in two subsets according to their surface expression of CD56: CD56 bright and CD56 dim. CD56 bright human NK cells express high levels of CD94/ NKG2A but low levels of CD16 and lack of KIRs; they predominate in lymph nodes and express low baseline levels of perforin and cytotoxic activity. In addition they produce high levels of cytokines, including IFN-γ, following stimulation by pro-inflammatory cytokines. On the other hand, CD56 dim NK cells are CD16 high and express KIRs and/or CD94/NKG2A; they predominate in PB (about 90% of PB NK cells); they show high baseline levels of perforin and cytotoxicity against tumor/virus-infected target cells; and they also produce various cytokines in response to direct target cell interactions (Scoville et al.). A third NK cell subset is represented by the CD16 + CD56 neg NK cells, that are poorly functional, express low levels of natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs) and Siglec-7 (an inhibitory lectin-type receptor expressed on the majority of NK cells) and may become more abundant in PB during persistent inflammation, characterizing several human chronic immunological diseases (such as viral infections and autoimmune diseases) (Mikulak et al.). It has been recently demonstrated that the developmental pathways for NK cell and ILC development are distinct; however, the developmental relationship between the different types of human NK subsets has not been finally clarified. While long held to represent sequential linear stages
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Submitted on : Thursday, October 18, 2018 - 2:55:46 PM
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Emanuela Marcenaro, Luigi D. Notarangelo, Jordan S. Orange, Eric Vivier. Editorial: NK Cell Subsets in Health and Disease: New Developments. Frontiers in Immunology, Frontiers, 2017, 8, ⟨10.3389/fimmu.2017.01363⟩. ⟨hal-01764671⟩



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