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The Evolving Role of Succinate in Tumor Metabolism: An 18 F-FDG–Based Study: succinate and [18F]-FDG.

Abstract : In recent years, inherited and acquired mutations in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes have been reported in diverse cancers. Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas often exhibit dysregula-tion of glucose metabolism, which is also driven by mutations in genes encoding the TCA cycle enzymes or by activation of hypoxia signaling. Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas associated with succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) deficiency are characterized by high 18 F-FDG avidity. This association is currently only partially explained. Therefore, we hypothesized that accumulation of succi-nate due to the TCA cycle defect could be the major connecting hub between SDH-mutated tumors and the 18 F-FDG uptake profile. Methods: To test whether succinate modifies the 18 F-FDG metabolic profile of tumors, we performed in vitro and in vivo (small-animal PET/CT imaging and autoradiography) experiments in the presence of succinate, fumarate, and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) in different cell models. As a control, we also evaluated the impact of succinate on 18 F-fluorocholine uptake and retention. Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) immunohistochemistry was performed to assess whether 18 F-FDG uptake correlates with GLUT1 staining. Results: Intratumoral injection of succinate significantly increased 18 F-FDG uptake at 24 h on small-animal PET/CT imaging and au-toradiography. No effect of succinate was observed on cancer cells in vitro, but interestingly, we found that succinate caused increased 18 F-FDG uptake by human umbilical vein endothelial cells in a concentration-dependent manner. No significant effect was observed after intratumoral injection of fumarate or PBS. Succinate, fumarate, and PBS have no effect on cell viability, regardless of cell lineage. Intramuscular injection of succinate also significantly increases 18 F-FDG uptake by muscle when compared with either PBS or fumarate, highlighting the effect of succinate on connective tissues. No difference was observed between PBS and succinate on 18 F-fluorocholine uptake in the tumor and muscle and on hind limb blood flow. GLUT1 expression quantification did not significantly differ between the study groups. Conclusion: The present study shows that succinate stimulates 18 F-FDG uptake by endothelial cells, a finding that partially explains the 18 F-FDG metabotype observed in tumors with SDH deficiency. Although this study is an 18 F-FDG–based approach, it provides an impetus to better characterize the determinants of 18 F-FDG uptake in various tumors and their surrounding microenvironment, with a special emphasis on the role of tumor-specific oncometabolites
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Philippe Garrigue, Aurore Bodin-Hullin, Laure Balasse, Samantha Fernandez, Wassim Essamet, et al.. The Evolving Role of Succinate in Tumor Metabolism: An 18 F-FDG–Based Study: succinate and [18F]-FDG.. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, Society of Nuclear Medicine, 2017, 58 (11), pp.1749-1755. ⟨10.2967/jnumed.117.192674⟩. ⟨hal-01770170⟩

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