J. A. Alexander, P. C. Wong, and A. R. Bradlow, Lexical tone perception in musicians and non-musicians, Proceedings of Interspeech 2005, 2005.

M. Besson, J. Chobert, M. , and C. , Transfer of Training between Music and Speech: Common Processing, Attention, and Memory, Frontiers in Psychology, vol.2, 2011.
DOI : 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00094

C. T. Best, G. W. Mcroberts, and E. Goodell, Discrimination of non-native consonant contrasts varying in perceptual assimilation to the listener???s native phonological system, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol.109, issue.2, pp.775-794, 2001.
DOI : 10.1121/1.1332378

G. M. Bidelman, J. T. Gandour, and A. Krishnan, Cross-domain Effects of Music and Language Experience on the Representation of Pitch in the Human Auditory Brainstem, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol.10, issue.2, pp.425-434, 2009.
DOI : 10.1098/rstb.2007.2161

G. M. Bidelman, S. Hutka, and S. Moreno, Tone Language Speakers and Musicians Share Enhanced Perceptual and Cognitive Abilities for Musical Pitch: Evidence for Bidirectionality between the Domains of Language and Music, PLoS ONE, vol.74, issue.4, 2013.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0060676.g006

D. Birdsong, Interpreting age effects in second language acquisition, " in Handbook of Bilingualism: Psycholinguistic Approaches, pp.109-127, 2005.

D. B. Birdsong, N. Kraus, and P. C. Wong, Age and Second Language Acquisition and Processing: A Selective Overview, Language Learning, vol.15, issue.Suppl. 1, pp.9-49, 2006.
DOI : 10.1017/S1366728903001081

B. Chandrasekaran, A. Krishnan, and J. T. Gandour, Relative influence of musical and linguistic experience on early cortical processing of pitch contours, Brain and Language, vol.108, issue.1, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bandl.2008.02.001

M. Cheour, R. Ceponiene, A. Lehtokoski, A. Luuk, J. Allik et al., Development of language-specific phoneme representations in the infant brain, Nature Neuroscience, vol.36, issue.5, pp.351-353, 1038.
DOI : 10.3758/BF03202673

J. Chobert and M. Besson, Musical Expertise and Second Language Learning, Brain Sciences, vol.47, issue.4, pp.923-940, 2013.
DOI : 10.1007/s11881-002-0011-z

J. Chobert, C. François, M. Habib, and M. Besson, Deficit in the preattentive processing of syllabic duration and VOT in children with dyslexia, Neuropsychologia, vol.50, issue.8, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2012.05.004

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01384132

J. Chobert, C. François, J. L. Velay, and M. Besson, Twelve Months of Active Musical Training in 8- to 10-Year-Old Children Enhances the Preattentive Processing of Syllabic Duration and Voice Onset Time, Cerebral Cortex, vol.9, issue.5, 2013.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2006.00509.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01384040

J. Chobert, C. Marie, C. François, D. Schön, and M. Besson, Enhanced Passive and Active Processing of Syllables in Musician Children, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol.10, issue.12, pp.3874-3887, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.08.039

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01382742

K. A. Corrigall, E. G. Schellenberg, and N. M. Misura, Music Training, Cognition, and Personality, Frontiers in Psychology, vol.4, 2013.
DOI : 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00222

URL : http://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00222

E. Courchesne, S. A. Hillyard, and R. Galambos, Stimulus novelty, task relevance and the visual evoked potential in man, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, vol.39, issue.2, pp.131-143, 1975.
DOI : 10.1016/0013-4694(75)90003-6

A. Cutler and T. Otake, Mora or phoneme? Further evidence for languagespecific listening, J. Mem. Lang, vol.3, 1994.

F. Degé and G. Schwarzer, The Effect of a Music Program on Phonological Awareness in Preschoolers, Frontiers in Psychology, vol.2, 2011.
DOI : 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00124

C. Deguchi, M. Boureux, M. Sarlo, M. Besson, M. Grassi et al., Sentence pitch change detection in the native and unfamiliar language in musicians and non-musicians: Behavioral, electrophysiological and psychoacoustic study, Brain Research, vol.1455, pp.75-89, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.brainres.2012.03.034

F. Delogu, G. Lampis, and M. O. Belardinelli, Music-to-language transfer effect: may melodic ability improve learning of tonal languages by native nontonal speakers?, Cognitive Processing, vol.256, issue.7, pp.203-207, 2006.
DOI : 10.1007/s10339-006-0146-7

F. Delogu, G. Lampis, and M. O. Belardinelli, From melody to lexical tone: Musical ability enhances specific aspects of foreign language perception, European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, vol.10, issue.1, pp.46-61, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/S1364-6613(00)01816-7

C. Duncan-johnson and E. Donchin, On Quantifying Surprise: The Variation of Event-Related Potentials With Subjective Probability, Psychophysiology, vol.46, issue.5, pp.456-467, 1977.
DOI : 10.1016/B978-0-12-325750-5.50029-4

J. E. Flege, Second-language speech learning: theory, findings, and problems, Speech Perception and Linguistic Experience, pp.233-277, 1995.

J. E. Flege and I. R. Mackay, Perceiving vowels in a second language, Stud. Second Lang. Acq, vol.26, pp.1-34, 2004.

J. E. Flege, M. Munro, and I. Mackay, Factors affecting strength of perceived foreign accent in a second language, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol.97, issue.5, pp.3125-3134, 1995.
DOI : 10.1121/1.413041

C. François, J. Chobert, M. Besson, and D. Schön, Music Training for the Development of Speech Segmentation, Cerebral Cortex, vol.10, issue.4, pp.2038-2043, 2013.
DOI : 10.1038/nn1872

T. Fujioka, B. Ross, R. Kakigi, C. Pantev, and L. J. Trainor, One year of musical training affects development of auditory cortical-evoked fields in young children, Brain, vol.129, issue.10, pp.2593-2608, 2006.
DOI : 10.1093/brain/awl247

N. Golestani and R. J. Zatorre, Individual differences in the acquisition of second language phonology, Brain and Language, vol.109, issue.2-3, pp.55-67, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bandl.2008.01.005

T. L. Gottfried, Music and language learning, Language Experience in Second Language Speech Learning, pp.221-237, 2007.
DOI : 10.1075/lllt.17.21got

T. L. Gottfried and D. Riester, Relation of pitch glide perception and Mandarin tone identification, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol.108, issue.5, 2000.
DOI : 10.1121/1.4743698

S. G. Guion and E. Pederson, Investigating the role of attention in phonetic learning, Language Experience in Second Language Speech Learning, pp.57-77, 2007.
DOI : 10.1075/lllt.17.09gui

K. L. Hyde, J. Lerch, A. Norton, M. Forgeard, E. Winner et al., Musical Training Shapes Structural Brain Development, Journal of Neuroscience, vol.29, issue.10, 2009.
DOI : 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5118-08.2009

N. Kraus and B. Chandrasekaran, Music training for the development of auditory skills, Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol.1169, issue.8, pp.599-605, 2010.
DOI : 10.1038/nn1474

P. K. Kuhl, S. Elmer, M. Meyer, J. , and L. , Born to Learn: Language, Reading, and the Brain of the Child Available online at: http://www.preschoolpartners.com/userfiles/file/born_to_learn_kuhl The encoding of vowels and temporal speech cues in the auditory cortex of professional musicians: an EEG study, Early Learning Summit for the Northwest Regionpdf Kühnis, Neuropsychologia, vol.5, pp.1608-1618, 2002.

T. Kujala, M. Tervaniemi, and E. Schröger, The mismatch negativity in cognitive and clinical neuroscience: Theoretical and methodological considerations, Biological Psychology, vol.74, issue.1, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2006.06.001

C. Y. Lee, H. , and T. H. , Identification of Mandarin tones by English-speaking musicians and nonmusicians, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol.124, issue.5, pp.3235-3248, 2008.
DOI : 10.1121/1.2990713

L. Lisker and A. S. Abramson, Some Effects of Context On Voice Onset Time in English Stops, Language and Speech, vol.1, issue.1, pp.1-28, 1967.
DOI : 10.1121/1.1909900

S. Majerus, M. Poncelet, M. Van-der-linden, and B. S. Weekes, Lexical learning in bilingual adults: The relative importance of short-term memory for serial order and phonological knowledge, Cognition, vol.107, issue.2, pp.395-419, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cognition.2007.10.003

C. Marie, F. Delogu, G. Lampis, M. O. Belardinelli, and M. Besson, Influence of Musical Expertise on Segmental and Tonal Processing in Mandarin Chinese, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol.17, issue.10, pp.2701-2715, 2011.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1080006

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01637302

C. Marie, C. Magne, and M. Besson, Musicians and the Metric Structure of Words, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol.10, issue.2, pp.294-305, 2011.
DOI : 10.1155/2007/30194

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01637303

C. Marie, T. Kujala, and M. Besson, Musical and linguistic expertise influence pre-attentive and attentive processing??of non-speech sounds, Cortex, vol.48, issue.4, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cortex.2010.11.006

C. Marques, S. Moreno, S. L. Castro, and M. Besson, Musicians Detect Pitch Violation in a Foreign Language Better Than Nonmusicians: Behavioral and Electrophysiological Evidence, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, vol.4, issue.9, pp.1453-1463, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.11.002

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01637304

R. Milovanov, M. Huotilainen, P. A. Esquef, P. Alku, V. Välimäki et al., The role of musical aptitude and language skills in preattentive duration processing in school-aged children, Neuroscience Letters, vol.460, issue.2, pp.161-165, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neulet.2009.05.063

R. Milovanov, M. Huotilainen, V. Välimäki, P. A. Esquef, and M. Tervaniemi, Musical aptitude and second language pronunciation skills in school-aged children: Neural and behavioral evidence, Brain Research, vol.1194, pp.81-89, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.brainres.2007.11.042

R. Milovanov, P. Pietilä, M. Tervaniemi, and P. A. Esquef, Foreign language pronunciation skills and musical aptitude: A study of Finnish adults with higher education, Learning and Individual Differences, vol.20, issue.1, pp.56-60, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.lindif.2009.11.003

A. Miyake and N. P. Friedman, Individual differences in second language proficiency: working memory as language aptitude, Foreign Language Learning. Psycholinguistic Studies on Training and Retention, pp.339-364, 1998.

S. Moreno, C. Marques, A. Santos, M. Santos, M. A. Besson et al., Musical Training Influences Linguistic Abilities in 8-Year-Old Children: More Evidence for Brain Plasticity, Cerebral Cortex, vol.10, issue.7, pp.712-723, 1999.
DOI : 10.1017/S0142716407070312

R. Näätänen, A. W. Gaillard, and S. Mäntysalo, Early selective-attention effect on evoked potential reinterpreted, Acta Psychologica, vol.42, issue.4, pp.313-329, 1978.
DOI : 10.1016/0001-6918(78)90006-9

R. Näätänen, P. Paavilainen, T. Rinne, A. , and K. , The mismatch negativity (MMN) in basic research of central auditory processing: a review, Clin. Neurophysiol, vol.118, 2007.

R. Näätänen, S. Pakarinen, T. Rinne, and R. Takegata, The mismatch negativity (MMN): towards the optimal paradigm, Clin. Neurophysiol, vol.115, 2004.

D. A. Nikjeh, J. J. Lister, and S. A. Frisch, Preattentive Cortical-Evoked Responses to Pure Tones, Harmonic Tones, and Speech: Influence of Music Training, Ear and Hearing, vol.30, issue.4, pp.432-446, 2009.
DOI : 10.1097/AUD.0b013e3181a61bf2

C. G. Ott, N. Langer, M. Oechslin, M. Meyer, J. et al., Processing of voiced and unvoiced acoustic stimuli in musicians, Frontiers in Psychology, vol.2, p.195, 2011.
DOI : 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00195

T. W. Picton, The P300 Wave of the Human Event-Related Potential, Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, vol.9, issue.4, pp.456-479, 1992.
DOI : 10.1097/00004691-199210000-00002

P. Boersma, D. Weenink, M. Sekiayama, and K. , Praat: Doing Phonetics by Computer (Version 5.3.15) Available online at: www.praat.org Sadakata Enhanced perception of various linguistic features by musicians: a cross-linguistic study, Acta Psychol, vol.138, pp.1-10, 2009.

E. G. Schellenberg, Music Lessons Enhance IQ, Psychological Science, vol.2, issue.1, pp.511-514, 2004.
DOI : 10.1037/1528-3542.4.1.46

URL : http://pss.sagepub.com/content/15/8/511.full.pdf

N. Segalowitz, Individual differences in second language acquisition, Tutorials in Bilingualism, pp.85-112, 1997.

L. R. Slevc and A. Miyake, Individual Differences in Second-Language Proficiency, Psychological Science, vol.6, issue.8, pp.675-681, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/S0926-6410(02)00245-8

K. C. Squires, N. K. Squires, and S. A. Hillyard, Decision-related cortical potentials during an auditory signal detection task with cued observation intervals., Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, vol.1, issue.3, pp.268-279, 1975.
DOI : 10.1037/0096-1523.1.3.268

D. L. Strait, N. Kraus, A. Parbery-clark, A. , and R. , Musical experience shapes top-down auditory mechanisms: Evidence from masking and auditory attention performance, Hearing Research, vol.261, issue.1-2, pp.22-29, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.heares.2009.12.021

M. Tervaniemi, S. Kruck, W. De-baene, E. Schröger, K. Alter et al., Top-down modulation of auditory processing: effects of sound context, musical expertise and attentional focus, European Journal of Neuroscience, vol.6, issue.8, pp.1636-1642, 2009.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2009.06955.x

M. Tervaniemi, M. Rytkönen, E. Schröger, R. J. Ilmoniemi, and R. Näätänen, Superior Formation of Cortical Memory Traces for Melodic Patterns in Musicians, Learning & Memory, vol.8, issue.5, pp.295-300, 2001.
DOI : 10.1101/lm.39501

P. C. Wong and T. K. Perrachione, Learning pitch patterns in lexical identification by native English-speaking adults, Applied Psycholinguistics, vol.61, issue.04, pp.565-585, 2007.
DOI : 10.1038/nn1083

P. C. Wong, E. Skoe, N. M. Russo, T. Dees, and N. Kraus, Musical experience shapes human brainstem encoding of linguistic pitch patterns, Nature Neuroscience, vol.426, issue.4, pp.420-42210, 1038.
DOI : 10.1038/nn1872