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The multifunctional peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase gene: exon/intron organization of catalytic, processing, and routing domains.

Abstract : Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM; EC is a multifunctional protein containing two enzymes that act sequentially to catalyze the alpha-amidation of neuroendocrine peptides. Peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM) catalyzes the first step of the reaction and is dependent on copper, ascorbate, and molecular oxygen. Peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase (PAL) catalyzes the second step of the reaction. Previous studies demonstrated that alternative splicing results in the production of bifunctional PAM proteins that are integral membrane or soluble proteins as well as soluble monofunctional PHM proteins. Rat PAM is encoded by a complex single copy gene that consists of 27 exons and encompasses more than 160 kilobases (kb) of genomic DNA. The 12 exons comprising PHM are distributed over at least 76 kb genomic DNA and range in size from 49-185 base pairs; four of the introns within the PHM domain are over 10 kb in length. Alternative splicing in the PHM region can result in a truncated, inactive PHM protein (rPAM-5), or a soluble, monofunctional PHM protein (rPAM-4) instead of a bifunctional protein. The eight exons comprising PAL are distributed over at least 19 kb genomic DNA. The exons encoding PAL range in size from 54-209 base pairs and have not been found to undergo alternative splicing. The PHM and PAL domains are separated by a single alternatively spliced exon surrounded by lengthy introns; inclusion of this exon results in the production of a form of PAM (rPAM-1) in which endoproteolytic cleavage at a paired basic site can separate the two catalytic domains. The exon following the PAL domain encodes the trans-membrane domain of PAM; alternative splicing at this site produces integral membrane or soluble PAM proteins. The COOH-terminal domain of PAM is comprised of a short exon subject to alternative splicing and a long exon encoding the final 68 amino acids present in all bifunctional PAM proteins along with the entire 3'-untranslated region. Analysis of hybrid cell panels indicates that the human PAM gene is situated on the long arm of chromosome 5.
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L'Houcine Ouafik, D Stoffers, T Campbell, R Johnson, B Bloomquist, et al.. The multifunctional peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase gene: exon/intron organization of catalytic, processing, and routing domains.. Molecular Endocrinology -Baltimore-, 1992, 6 (10), pp.1571 - 1584. ⟨10.1210/mend.6.10.1448112⟩. ⟨hal-01805091⟩



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