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Genetic differentiation within and among refugia

Abstract : 1. Since the Last Glacial Maximum, the distribution of terrestrial plant and animal taxa in Europe has shifted from refugia northwards in latitude and upwards in altitude. 2. The populations from refugia, mainly mountain massifs of S Europe (Pyrenees and Alps, but also Carpathian and Balkan Mountains), harbour a higher refugia northwardsthan the populations of N Europe. 3. The isolation by distance effect between populations tends to decrease with increasing distance from glacial refugia. 4. In areas of admixture from colonization originating in different refugia the heterozygosity may be higher than near refugia. 5. Numerous thermophilous species have survived in their Mediterranean refugia at low altitude (particularly in islands). 6. Diploid populations or taxa often remained restricted at mid and high altitudes in S Europe, while their polyploid relatives spread in the lowlands. 7. For cold-adapted species, refugia are mainly located in S European mountains, but sometimes in N Eurasia, such as in Andøya island or in Taymyr peninsula. 8. The relict populations retaining high allelic diversity and the endemic diploid taxa are now key elements in the long term conservation.
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Gabriel Nève, Regine Verlaque. Genetic differentiation within and among refugia. Jan Christian Habel; Thorsten Assmann. Relict Species : Phylogeography and Conservation Biology, Springer, pp.277-294, 2010, 978-3-540-92160-8. ⟨hal-01957050⟩

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