9. Guideline, guidelines on short-latency auditory evoked potentials. American Clinical Neurophysiology Society, Am J Electroneurodiagnostic Technol, vol.46, pp.275-286, 2008.

D. J. Acunzo, G. Mackenzie, and M. C. Van-rossum, Systematic biases in early ERP and ERF components as a result of highpass filtering, J Neurosci Methods, vol.209, pp.212-218, 2012.

S. An, J. W. Yang, H. Sun, W. Kilb, and H. J. Luhmann, Long-term potentiation in the neonatal rat barrel cortex in vivo, J Neurosci, vol.32, pp.9511-9516, 2012.

S. An, W. Kilb, and H. J. Luhmann, Sensory-evoked and spontaneous gamma and spindle bursts in neonatal rat motor cortex, J Neurosci, vol.34, pp.10870-10883, 2014.
DOI : 10.1523/jneurosci.4539-13.2014

URL : http://www.jneurosci.org/content/34/33/10870.full.pdf

M. André, M. D. Lamblin, A. M. Allest, L. Curzi-dascalova, F. Moussalli-salefranque et al., Electroencephalography in premature and full-term infants. Developmental features and glossary, Neurophysiol Clin, vol.40, pp.59-124, 2010.

H. Azizollahi, A. Aarabi, and F. Wallois, Effects of uncertainty in head tissue conductivity and complexity on EEG forward modeling in neonates, Hum Brain Mapp, vol.37, pp.3604-3622, 2016.

P. Belin, R. J. Zatorre, and P. Ahad, Human temporal-lobe response to vocal sounds, Brain Res Cogn Brain Res, vol.13, pp.17-26, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/s0926-6410(01)00084-2

G. Buzsaki and X. J. Wang, Mechanisms of gamma oscillations, Annu Rev Neurosci, vol.35, pp.203-225, 2012.

K. Cha, R. J. Zatorre, and M. Schönwiesner, Frequency selectivity of voxel-by-voxel functional connectivity in human auditory cortex, Cereb Cortex, vol.26, pp.211-224, 2016.

E. F. Chang and M. M. Merzenich, Environmental noise retards auditory cortical development, Science, vol.300, pp.498-502, 2003.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1082163

J. G. Chi, E. C. Dooling, and F. H. Gilles, Left-right asymmetries of the temporal speech areas of the human fetus, Arch Neurol, vol.34, pp.346-348, 1977.

M. Chipaux, M. T. Colonnese, A. Mauguen, L. Fellous, M. Mokhtari et al., Auditory stimuli mimicking ambient sounds drive temporal "delta-brushes" in premature infants, PLoS One, vol.8, p.79028, 2013.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0079028

URL : https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0079028&type=printable

C. Chiron, I. Jambaque, R. Nabbout, R. Lounes, A. Syrota et al., The right brain hemisphere is dominant in human infants, Brain, vol.120, pp.1057-1065, 1997.

B. Clancy, R. B. Darlington, and B. L. Finlay, Translating developmental time across mammalian species, Neuroscience, vol.105, pp.7-17, 2001.

B. Clancy, B. L. Finlay, R. B. Darlington, and K. J. Anand, Extrapolating brain development from experimental species to humans, Neurotoxicology, vol.28, pp.931-937, 2007.

M. T. Colonnese, A. Kaminska, M. Minlebaev, M. Milh, B. Bloem et al., A conserved switch in sensory processing prepares developing neocortex for vision, Neuron, vol.67, pp.480-498, 2010.

M. T. Colonnese and R. Khazipov, Slow activity transients" in infant rat visual cortex: a spreading synchronous oscillation patterned by retinal waves, J Neurosci, vol.30, pp.4325-4337, 2010.

M. Colonnese and R. Khazipov, Spontaneous activity in developing sensory circuits: Implications for resting state fMRI, Neuroimage, vol.62, pp.2212-2221, 2012.

D. Contreras, A. Destexhe, T. J. Sejnowski, and M. Steriade, Control of spatiotemporal coherence of a thalamic oscillation by corticothalamic feedback, Science, vol.274, pp.771-774, 1996.

D. Contreras, I. Timofeev, and M. Steriade, Mechanisms of longlasting hyperpolarizations underlying slow sleep oscillations in cat corticothalamic networks, J Physiol, vol.494, pp.251-264, 1996.

L. Curzi-dascalova, J. M. Figueroa, M. Eiselt, E. Christova, A. Virassamy et al., Sleep state organization in premature infants of less than 35 weeks' gestational age, Pediatr Res, vol.34, pp.624-628, 1993.

M. I. Daw, M. C. Ashby, and J. T. Isaac, Coordinated developmental recruitment of latent fast spiking interneurons in layer IV barrel cortex, Nat Neurosci, vol.10, pp.453-461, 2007.

G. Dehaene-lambertz, L. Hertz-pannier, and J. Dubois, Nature and nurture in language acquisition: anatomical and functional brain-imaging studies in infants, Trends Neurosci, vol.2, pp.367-373, 2006.

A. Delorme and S. Makeig, EEGLAB: an open source toolbox for analysis of single-trial EEG dynamics including independent component analysis, J Neurosci Methods, vol.134, pp.9-21, 2004.

J. E. Desmedt and J. Manil, Somatosensory evoked potentials of the normal human neonate in REM sleep, in slow wave sleep and in waking, Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol, vol.29, pp.113-126, 1970.

J. Dubois, M. Benders, A. Cachia, F. Lazeyras, R. Ha-vinhleuchter et al., Mapping the early cortical folding process in the preterm newborn brain, Cereb Cortex, vol.18, pp.1444-1454, 2008.

J. Dubois, M. Benders, C. Borradori-tolsa, A. Cachia, F. Lazeyras et al., Primary cortical folding in the human newborn: an early marker of later functional development, Brain, vol.131, pp.2028-2041, 2008.

, Auditory-Evoked Responses in Preterm Neonates Kaminska et al. | 3441

J. Dubois, M. Benders, F. Lazeyras, C. Borradori-tolsa, R. H. Leuchter et al., Structural asymmetries of perisylvian regions in the preterm newborn, Neuroimage, vol.52, pp.32-42, 2010.

E. Dupont, I. Hanganu, W. Kilb, S. Hirsch, and H. J. Luhmann, Rapid developmental switch in the mechanisms driving early cortical columnar networks, Nature, vol.439, pp.79-83, 2006.

V. I. Dzhala, D. M. Talos, D. A. Sdrulla, A. C. Brumback, G. C. Mathews et al., NKCC1 transporter facilitates seizures in the developing brain, NatMed, vol.11, pp.1205-1213, 2005.

L. Fabrizi, A. Worley, D. Patten, S. Holdridge, L. Cornelissen et al., Electrophysiological measurements and analysis of nociception in human infants, J Vis Exp, vol.20, p.3118, 2011.

R. Galambos, S. Makeig, and P. J. Talmachoff, A 40-Hz auditory potential recorded from the human scalp, Proc Natl Acad Sci, vol.78, pp.2643-2647, 1981.

P. G. Grieve, J. R. Isler, A. Izraelit, B. S. Peterson, W. P. Fifer et al., EEG functional connectivity in term age extremely low birth weight infants, Clin Neurophysiol. Dec, vol.119, pp.2712-2720, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.clinph.2008.09.020

URL : http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc2614343?pdf=render

P. G. Grieve, R. G. Emerson, J. R. Isler, and R. I. Stark, Quantitative analysis of spatial sampling error in the infant and adult electroencephalogram, Neuroimage, vol.21, issue.4, pp.1260-1274, 2004.

I. L. Hanganu, B. Ari, Y. Khazipov, and R. , Retinal waves trigger spindle bursts in the neonatal rat visual cortex, J Neurosci, vol.26, pp.6728-6736, 2006.
DOI : 10.1523/jneurosci.0752-06.2006

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00484329

I. L. Hanganu-opatz, Between molecules and experience: role of early patterns of coordinated activity for the development of cortical maps and sensory abilities, Brain Res Rev, vol.64, pp.160-176, 2010.

A. Hoerder-suabedissen and Z. Molnar, Development, evolution and pathology of neocortical subplate neurons, Nat Rev Neurosci, vol.16, pp.133-146, 2015.

A. Hrbek, P. Karlberg, and T. Olsson, Development of visual and somatosensory evoked responses in pre-term newborn infants, Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol, vol.34, pp.225-232, 1973.

M. Huotilainen, A. Kujala, M. Hotakainen, A. Shestakova, E. Kushnerenko et al., Auditory magnetic responses of healthy newborns, Neuroreport, vol.14, pp.1871-1875, 2003.

J. R. Isler, J. Grose-fifer, W. P. Fifer, S. Housman, R. I. Stark et al., Frequency domain analyses of neonatal flash VEP, Pediatr Res, vol.62, pp.581-585, 2007.
DOI : 10.1203/pdr.0b013e31815586a1

URL : https://www.nature.com/articles/pr2007282.pdf

C. Kabdebon, F. Leroy, H. Simmonet, M. Perrot, J. Dubois et al., Anatomical correlations of the international 10-20 sensor placement system ininfants, Neuroimage, vol.99, pp.342-356, 2014.

P. O. Kanold and C. J. Shatz, Subplate neurons regulate maturation of cortical inhibition and outcome of ocular dominance plasticity, Neuron, vol.51, issue.5, pp.627-638, 2006.

P. O. Kanold and H. J. Luhmann, The subplate and early cortical circuits, Annu Rev Neurosci, vol.33, pp.23-48, 2010.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev-neuro-060909-153244

R. Khazipov, A. Sirota, X. Leinekugel, G. Holmes, B. Ari et al., Early motor activity drives spindle bursts in the developing somatosensory cortex, Nature, vol.432, pp.758-761, 2004.
DOI : 10.1038/nature03132

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00484640

R. Khazipov and H. J. Luhmann, Early patterns of electrical activity in the developing cerebral cortex of humans and rodents, Trends Neurosci, vol.29, pp.414-418, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00483896

R. Khazipov, M. Minlebaev, and G. Valeeva, Early gamma oscillations, Neuroscience, vol.250, pp.240-252, 2013.

N. Koolen, A. Dereymaeker, O. Rasanen, K. Jansen, J. Vervisch et al., Data-driven metric representing the maturation of preterm EEG, ConfProc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc, vol.2015, pp.1492-1495, 2015.

N. Koolen, A. Dereymaeker, O. Räsänen, K. Jansen, J. Vervisch et al., Early development of synchrony in cortical activations in the human, Neuroscience, vol.322, pp.298-307, 2016.

I. Kostovic and J. M. , Prolonged coexistence of transient and permanent circuitry elements in the developing cerebral cortex of fetuses and preterm infants, Dev Med Child Neurol, vol.48, pp.388-393, 2006.

J. M. Kostoví-c-i, The development of the subplate and thalamocortical connections in the human foetal brain, 2010.

, Acta Paediatr, vol.99, issue.8, pp.1119-1127

I. Kostovic and P. Rakic, Developmental history of the transient subplate zone in the visual and somatosensory cortex of the macaque monkey and human brain, J Comp Neurol, vol.297, issue.3, pp.441-470, 1990.

M. D. Lamblin, M. André, M. J. Challamel, L. Curzi-dascalova, A. M. Allest et al., Electroencephalography of the premature and term newborn. Maturational aspects and glossary, Neurophysiol Clin, vol.29, pp.123-219, 1999.

A. M. Leaver and J. P. Rauschecker, Functional topography of human auditory cortex, J Neurosci, vol.36, pp.1416-1428, 2016.

J. M. Lengle, M. Chen, and R. T. Wakai, Improved neuromagnetic detection of fetal and neonatal auditory-evokedresponses, 2001.

, Clin Neurophysiol, vol.112, pp.785-792

P. Y. Lin, N. Roche-labarbe, M. Dehaes, S. Carp, A. Fenoglio et al., Non-invasive optical measurement of cerebral metabolism and hemodynamics in infants, J Vis Exp, vol.73, p.4379, 2013.

S. Lippé, E. Martinez-montes, C. Arcand, and M. Lassonde, Electrophysiological study of auditory development, Neuroscience, vol.164, issue.3, pp.1108-1118, 2009.

H. J. Luhmann, A. Sinning, J. W. Yang, V. Reyes-puerta, M. C. Stuttgen et al., Spontaneous neuronal activity in developing neocortical networks: from single cells to largescale interactions, Front Neural Circuits, vol.10, p.40, 2016.

H. J. Luhmann, W. Kilb, . Hanganu-opatz, and . Il, Subplate cells: amplifiers of neuronal activity in the developing cerebral cortex, Front Neuroanat, vol.3, p.19, 2009.

M. Mahmoudzadeh, G. Dehaene-lambertz, M. Fournier, G. Kongolo, S. Goudjil et al., Syllabic discrimination in premature human infants prior to complete formation of cortical layers, Proc Natl Acad Sci, vol.110, pp.4846-4851, 2013.

A. Marques-smith, D. Lyngholm, A. K. Kaufmann, J. A. Stacey, A. Hoerder-suabedissen et al., A transient translaminar GABAergic interneuron circuit connects thalamocortical recipient layers in neonatal somatosensory cortex, Neuron, vol.89, pp.536-549, 2016.

G. Mento, A. Suppiej, G. Altoè, and P. S. Bisiacchi, Functional hemispheric asymmetries in humans: electrophysiological evidence from preterm infants, Eur J Neurosci, vol.31, pp.565-574, 2010.

M. Milh, A. Kaminska, C. Huon, A. Lapillonne, Y. Ben-ari et al., Rapid cortical oscillations and early motor activity in premature human neonate, Cereb Cortex, vol.17, pp.1582-1594, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00483869

M. Minlebaev, Y. Ben-ari, and R. Khazipov, Network mechanisms of spindle-burst oscillations in the neonatal rat barrel cortex in vivo, J Neurophysiol, vol.97, pp.692-700, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00483860

M. Minlebaev, M. Colonnese, T. Tsintsadze, A. Sirota, and R. Khazipov, Early gamma oscillations synchronize developing thalamus and cortex, Science, vol.334, pp.226-229, 2011.

A. R. Moore, R. Filipovic, Z. Mo, M. N. Rasband, N. Zecevic et al., Electrical excitability of early neurons in the human cerebral cortex during the second trimester of gestation, Cereb Cortex, vol.19, issue.8, pp.1795-1805, 2009.

A. R. Moore, W. L. Zhou, I. Jakovcevski, N. Zecevic, and S. D. Antic, Spontaneous electrical activity in the human fetal cortex in vitro, J Neurosci, vol.31, issue.7, pp.2391-2398, 2011.

A. R. Moore, W. L. Zhou, C. L. Sirois, G. S. Belinsky, N. Zecevic et al., Connexin hemichannels contribute to spontaneous electrical activity in the human fetal cortex, Proc Natl Acad Sci, vol.111, issue.37, pp.3919-3928, 2014.

Y. Murata and M. T. Colonnese, An excitatory cortical feedback loop gates retinal wave transmission in rodent thalamus, Elife, vol.11, p.5, 2016.

G. Musacchia, S. Ortiz-mantilla, T. Realpe-bonilla, C. P. Roesler, and A. A. Benasich, Infant auditory processing and eventrelated brain oscillations, J Vis Exp, issue.101, p.52420, 2015.

M. M. Myers, P. G. Grieve, A. Izraelit, W. P. Fifer, J. R. Isler et al., Developmental profiles of infant EEG: overlap with transient cortical circuits, ClinNeurophysiol, vol.123, pp.1502-1511, 2012.

M. Odabaee, W. J. Freeman, P. B. Colditz, C. Ramon, and S. Vanhatalo, Spatial patterning of the neonatal EEG suggests a need for a high number of electrodes, Neuroimage, vol.68, pp.229-235, 2013.

M. Odabaee, A. Tokariev, S. Layeghy, M. Mesbah, P. B. Colditz et al., Neonatal EEG at scalp is focal and implies high skull conductivity in realistic neonatal head models, Neuroimage, vol.96, pp.73-80, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.04.007

S. Ortiz-mantilla, J. A. Hämäläinen, G. Musacchia, and A. A. Benasich, Enhancement of gamma oscillations indicates preferential processing of native over foreign phonemic contrasts in infants, J Neurosci, vol.33, issue.48, pp.18746-18754, 2013.

M. Peña, A. Maki, D. Kovaci´ckovaci´c, G. Dehaene-lambertz, H. Koizumi et al., Sounds and silence: an optical topography study of language recognition at birth, Proc Natl Acad Sci, vol.100, pp.11702-11705, 2003.

T. W. Picton, A. C. Woods, D. L. John, M. S. Scherg, M. Valdes-sosa et al., Intracerebral sources of human auditory-evoked potentials, AudiolNeurootol, vol.4, pp.64-79, 1999.
DOI : 10.1159/000013823

Y. Qin, P. Xu, and D. A. Yao, Comparative study of different references for EEG default mode network: the use of the infinity reference, Clin Neurophysiol, vol.121, pp.1981-1991, 2010.

A. Reimer, P. Hubka, A. K. Engel, and A. Kral, Fast propagating waves within the rodent auditory cortex, Cereb Cortex, vol.21, issue.1, pp.166-177, 2011.
DOI : 10.1093/cercor/bhq073

URL : https://academic.oup.com/cercor/article-pdf/21/1/166/17304067/bhq073.pdf

L. Robles and M. A. Ruggero, Mechanics of the mammalian cochlea, Physiol Rev, vol.81, issue.3, pp.1305-1352, 2001.

J. J. Rotteveel, E. J. Colon, D. F. Stegeman, and Y. M. Visco, The maturation of the central auditory conduction in preterm infants until 3 months post term IV. Composite group averages of the cortical auditory-evokedresponses (ACRs), vol.27, pp.85-93, 1987.

J. J. Rotteveel, E. J. Colon, D. F. Stegeman, and Y. M. Visco, The maturation of the central auditory conduction in preterm infants until 3 months post term V. The auditory cortical response (ACR), vol.27, pp.95-100, 1987.

A. Sambeth, S. Pakarinen, K. Ruohio, V. Fellman, T. L. Van-zuijen et al., Change detection in newborns using a multiple deviant paradigm: a study using magnetoencephalography, Clin Neurophysiol, vol.120, pp.530-538, 2009.

M. V. Sanchez-vives and D. A. Mccormick, Cellular and network mechanisms of rhythmic recurrent activity in neocortex, Nat Neurosci, vol.3, pp.1027-1034, 2000.

T. K. Sato, I. Nauhaus, and M. Carandini, Traveling waves in visual cortex, Neuron, vol.75, pp.218-229, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuron.2012.06.029

URL : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2012.06.029

S. Stjerna, J. Voipio, M. Metsäranta, K. Kaila, and S. Vanhatalo, Preterm EEG: a multimodal neurophysiological protocol, 2012.
DOI : 10.3791/3774

URL : https://www.jove.com/pdf/3774/preterm-eeg-a-multimodal-neurophysiological-protocol

, J Vis Exp, vol.60

T. Sun and C. A. Walsh, Molecular approaches to brain asymmetry and handedness, Nat Rev Neurosci, vol.7, pp.655-662, 2006.
DOI : 10.1038/nrn1930

K. Takahashi, M. Saleh, R. D. Penn, and N. G. Hatsopoulos, Propagating waves in human motor cortex, Front Hum Neurosci, vol.5, p.40, 2011.
DOI : 10.3389/fnhum.2011.00040

URL : https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnhum.2011.00040/pdf

D. Tanner, K. Morgan-short, and S. J. Luck, How inappropriate high-pass filters can produce artifactual effects and incorrect conclusions in ERP studies of language and cognition, Psychophysiology, vol.52, pp.997-1009, 2015.

A. Tiriac, B. D. Uitermarkt, A. S. Fanning, G. Sokoloff, and M. S. Blumberg, Rapid whisker movements in sleeping newborn rats, Curr Biol, vol.22, pp.2075-2080, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cub.2012.09.009

URL : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2012.09.009

E. A. Tolner, A. Sheikh, A. Y. Yukin, K. Kaila, and P. O. Kanold, Subplate neurons promote spindle bursts and thalamocortical patterning in the neonatal rat somatosensory cortex, J Neurosci, vol.32, issue.2, pp.692-702, 2012.
DOI : 10.1523/jneurosci.1538-11.2012

URL : http://www.jneurosci.org/content/32/2/692.full.pdf

N. X. Tritsch, Y. E. Gale, J. E. Glowatzki, E. Bergles, and D. E. , The origin of spontaneous activity in the developing auditory system, Nature, vol.450, issue.7166, pp.50-55, 2007.

N. X. Tritsch, A. Rodríguez-contreras, T. T. Crins, H. C. Wang, J. G. Borst et al., Calcium action potentials in hair cells pattern auditory neuron activity before hearing onset, Nat Neurosci, vol.13, issue.9, pp.1050-1052, 2010.

S. N. Tuncdemir, B. Wamsley, F. J. Stam, F. Osakada, M. Goulding et al., Early somatostatin interneuron connectivity mediates the maturation of deep layer cortical circuits, Neuron, vol.89, pp.521-535, 2016.

S. Vanhatalo, J. M. Palva, S. Andersson, C. Rivera, J. Voipio et al., Slow endogenous activity transients and developmental expression of K+-Cl-cotransporter 2 in the immature human cortex, Eur J Neurisci, vol.22, pp.2799-2804, 2005.

S. Vanhatalo and K. K. , Development of neonatal EEG activity: from phenomenology to physiology, Semin Fetal Neonatal Med, vol.11, issue.6, pp.471-478, 2006.

L. Weitzman, L. Graziani, and L. Duhamel, Maturation and topography of the auditory-evokedresponse of the prematurely born infant, Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol, vol.23, pp.82-83, 1967.

A. Widmann, E. Schröger, and B. Maess, Digital filter design for electrophysiological data-a practical approach, J Neurosci Methods, vol.250, pp.34-46, 2015.

C. H. Wolters, A. Anwander, X. Tricoche, D. Weinstein, M. A. Koch et al., Influence of tissue conductivity anisotropy on EEG/MEG field and return current computation in a realistic head model: a simulation and visualization study using high-resolution finite element modeling, Neuroimage, vol.30, pp.813-826, 2006.

A. D. Workman, C. J. Charvet, B. Clancy, R. B. Darlington, and B. L. Finlay, Modeling transformations of neurodevelopmental sequences across mammalian species, J Neurosci, vol.33, pp.7368-7383, 2013.

D. L. Woods, T. J. Herron, A. D. Cate, X. Kang, and E. W. Yund, Phonological processing in human auditory cortical fields, Front Hum Neurosci, vol.5, p.42, 2011.

, Auditory-Evoked Responses in Preterm Neonates Kaminska et al. | 3443

J. L. Wunderlich and B. K. Cone-wesson, Maturation of CAEP in infants and children: a review, Hear Res, vol.212, pp.212-223, 2006.

J. W. Yang, I. L. Hanganu-opatz, J. J. Sun, and H. J. Luhmann, Three patterns of oscillatory activity differentially synchronize developing neocortical networks in vivo, J Neurosci, vol.29, pp.9011-9025, 2009.

J. W. Yang, S. An, J. J. Sun, V. Reyes-puerta, J. Kindler et al., Thalamic network oscillations synchronize ontogenetic columns in the newborn rat barrel cortex, Cereb Cortex, vol.23, pp.1299-1316, 2013.

J. W. Yang, V. Reyes-puerta, W. Kilb, and H. J. Luhmann, Spindle bursts in neonatal rat cerebral cortex, Neural Plast, p.3467832, 2016.

H. C. Wang, C. C. Lin, R. Cheung, Y. Zhang-hooks, A. Agarwal et al., Spontaneous activity of cochlear hair cells triggered by fluid secretion mechanism in adjacent support cells, Cell, vol.163, issue.6, pp.1348-1359, 2015.

R. J. Zatorre, M. Bouffard, P. Ahad, and P. Belin, Where is 'where' in the human auditory cortex?, Nat Neurosci, vol.5, pp.905-909, 2002.