M. F. Holick, Vitamin D deficiency, N Engl J Med, vol.357, pp.266-281, 2007.

H. F. Deluca, Vitamin D: Historical Overview, vol.100, pp.1-20, 2016.

A. Schmid and B. Walther, Natural vitamin D content in animal products, Adv Nutr, vol.4, pp.453-462, 2013.

J. F. Landrier, J. Marcotorchino, and F. Tourniaire, Lipophilic micronutrients and adipose tissue biology, Nutrients, vol.383, pp.1622-1649, 2012.

I. Schuster, Cytochromes P450 are essential players in the vitamin D signaling system, Biochim Biophys 385 Acta, pp.186-199, 2011.

C. Carlberg and S. Seuter, A genomic perspective on vitamin D signaling, Anticancer Res, vol.29, pp.3485-387, 2009.

A. S. Dusso, A. J. Brown, E. Slatopolsky, and D. Vitamin, Am J Physiol Renal Physiol, vol.289, pp.8-28, 2005.

D. D. Bikle, E. Gee, B. Halloran, M. A. Kowalski, E. Ryzen et al., Assessment of the free fraction of 390 25-hydroxyvitamin D in serum and its regulation by albumin and the vitamin D-binding protein, J Clin 391 Endocrinol Metab, vol.63, pp.954-959, 1986.

J. G. Haddad, D. R. Fraser, and D. E. Lawson, Vitamin D plasma binding protein. Turnover and fate in the 393 rabbit, J Clin Invest, vol.67, pp.1550-1560, 1981.

C. P. Earthman, L. M. Beckman, K. Masodkar, and S. D. Sibley, The link between obesity and low circulating 395 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations: considerations and implications, Int J Obes, pp.387-396, 2012.

N. Vilarrasa, J. Maravall, A. Estepa, R. Sanchez, C. Masdevall et al., , p.398

. Gomez, Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in obese women: their clinical significance and 399 relationship with anthropometric and body composition variables, J Endocrinol Invest, vol.30, pp.653-658, 2007.

O. P. Garcia, K. Z. Long, and J. L. Rosado, Impact of micronutrient deficiencies on obesity, Nutr Rev, vol.67, pp.559-572, 2009.

S. Cheng, J. M. Massaro, C. S. Fox, M. G. Larson, M. J. Keyes et al.,

P. F. Hoffmann, S. L. Jacques, R. S. Booth, M. Vasan, T. J. Wolf et al., Adiposity, cardiometabolic risk, and 404 vitamin D status: the Framingham Heart Study, Diabetes, pp.242-248, 2010.

J. S. Walsh, A. L. Evans, S. Bowles, K. E. Naylor, K. S. Jones et al., , p.406

, Free 25-hydroxyvitamin D is low in obesity, but there are no adverse associations with bone health, Am J 407 Clin Nutr, vol.103, pp.1465-1471, 2016.

N. H. Bell, S. Shaw, and R. T. Turner, Evidence that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits the hepatic 409 production of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in man, J Clin Invest, vol.74, pp.1540-1544, 1984.

J. Wortsman, L. Y. Matsuoka, T. C. Chen, Z. Lu, and M. F. Holick, Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in 411 obesity, Am J Clin Nutr, vol.72, pp.690-693, 2000.

A. T. Drincic, L. A. Armas, E. E. Van-diest, and R. P. Heaney, Volumetric dilution, rather than sequestration 413 best explains the low vitamin D status of obesity, Obesity, pp.1444-1448, 2012.

L. Wamberg, T. Christiansen, S. K. Paulsen, S. Fisker, P. Rask et al., 415 Expression of vitamin D-metabolizing enzymes in human adipose tissue-the effect of obesity and diet416 induced weight loss, Int J Obes, pp.651-657, 2013.

J. M. Park, C. Y. Park, and S. N. Han, High fat diet-Induced obesity alters vitamin D metabolizing enzyme 418 expression in mice, Biofactors, pp.175-182, 2015.

J. F. Landrier, C. Malezet-desmoulins, E. Reboul, A. M. Lorec, M. J. Amiot et al., 420 Comparison of different vehicles to study the effect of tocopherols on gene expression in intestinal cells, p.421

, Free Radic Res, vol.42, pp.523-530, 2008.

K. J. Livak and T. D. Schmittgen, Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR 423 and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) Method, Methods, vol.25, pp.402-408, 2001.

L. Bonnet, E. Karkeni, C. Couturier, J. Astier, J. Dalifard et al., , p.425

J. F. Landrier, Gene expression pattern in response to cholecalciferol supplementation highlights cubilin as 426 a major protein of 25(OH)D uptake in adipocytes and male mice white adipose tissue, Endocrinology, p.427, 2017.

C. J. Hedman, D. A. Wiebe, S. Dey, J. Plath, J. W. Kemnitz et al., , p.429

L. Ms, /MS method for vitamin D metabolites: 1,25 Dihydroxyvitamin D2&3 measurement using a novel 430 derivatization agent, J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci, pp.62-67, 2014.

Z. Wang, T. Senn, T. Kalhorn, X. E. Zheng, S. Zheng et al., 432 Simultaneous measurement of plasma vitamin D(3) metabolites, including 4beta, pp.25-433

, D(3), using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, Anal Biochem, vol.418, pp.126-133, 2011.

T. E. Lipkie, A. Janasch, B. R. Cooper, E. E. Hohman, C. M. Weaver et al., Quantification of 435 vitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in soft tissues by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci, vol.436, pp.6-11, 2013.

M. B. Snijder, R. M. Van-dam, M. Visser, D. J. Deeg, J. M. Dekker et al., , p.438

, Adiposity in relation to vitamin D status and parathyroid hormone levels: a population-based study in 439 older men and women, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, vol.90, pp.4119-4123, 2005.

I. N. Sergeev and Q. Song, High vitamin D and calcium intakes reduce diet-induced obesity in mice by 441 increasing adipose tissue apoptosis, Mol Nutr Food Res, vol.58, pp.1342-1348, 2014.

Q. Song and I. N. Sergeev, High vitamin D and calcium intakes increase bone mineral (Ca and P) content 443 in high-fat diet-induced obese mice, Nutr Res, vol.35, pp.146-154, 2015.

M. S. Johnsen, G. Grimnes, Y. Figenschau, P. A. Torjesen, B. Almas et al., Serum free and bio445 available 25-hydroxyvitamin D correlate better with bone density than serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D, p.446

, Scand J Clin Lab Invest, vol.74, pp.177-183, 2014.

K. S. Vimaleswaran, D. J. Berry, C. Lu, E. Tikkanen, S. Pilz et al.,

A. R. Houston, K. Wood, L. Michaelsson, L. Vandenput, L. M. Zgaga et al., J, p.449

M. Dupuis, M. E. Kaakinen, K. Kleber, N. Jameson, O. Arden et al., , p.450

H. Melhus, E. Ingelsson, L. Byberg, L. Lind, M. Lorentzon et al.,

K. H. Mitchell, A. Herzig, A. L. Pouta, and G. C. Hartikainen, Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits

E. Streeten, A. Theodoratou, N. J. Jula, C. Wareham, T. M. Ohlsson et al., , p.453

J. B. Richards, T. Lehtimaki, W. H. Ouwehand, P. Kraft, C. Cooper et al., , p.454

M. R. Jarvelin, J. C. Whittaker, A. D. Hingorani, and E. Hypponen, Causal relationship between obesity and 455 vitamin D status: bi-directional Mendelian randomization analysis of multiple cohorts, PLoS Med, vol.10, p.1001383, 2013.

J. Marcotorchino, F. Tourniaire, J. Astier, E. Karkeni, M. Canault et al., , p.458

J. C. Martin, B. Giannesini, and J. F. Landrier, Vitamin D protects against diet-induced obesity by enhancing fatty 459 acid oxidation, J Nutr Biochem, vol.25, pp.1077-1083, 2014.

J. F. Landrier, E. Karkeni, J. Marcotorchino, L. Bonnet, and F. Tourniaire, Vitamin D modulates adipose 461 tissue biology: possible consequences for obesity?, Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, vol.75, pp.38-46, 2016.

E. Karkeni, L. Bonnet, J. Marcotorchino, F. Tourniaire, J. Astier et al., Vitamin D limits 463 inflammation-linked microRNA expression in adipocytes in vitro and in vivo: A new mechanism for the 464 regulation of inflammation by vitamin D, Epigenetics, p.0, 2017.

E. Karkeni, J. Marcotorchino, F. Tourniaire, J. Astier, F. Peiretti et al., Vitamin D 466 limits chemokine expression in adipocytes and macrophage migration in vitro and in male mice, 467 Endocrinology, vol.156, pp.1782-1793, 2015.

J. Marcotorchino, E. Gouranton, B. Romier, F. Tourniaire, J. Astier et al.,

. Landrier, Vitamin D reduces the inflammatory response and restores glucose uptake in adipocytes, Nutr Food Res, vol.470, pp.1771-1782, 2012.

J. G. Zhu, J. T. Ochalek, M. Kaufmann, G. Jones, and H. F. Deluca, CYP2R1 is a major, but not exclusive, 472 contributor to 25-hydroxyvitamin D production in vivo, Proc Natl Acad Sci, vol.110, pp.15650-15655, 2013.

A. Carrelli, M. Bucovsky, R. Horst, S. Cremers, C. Zhang et al., , p.474

S. J. Silverberg and E. M. Stein, Vitamin D Storage in Adipose Tissue of Obese and Normal Weight Women, J 475 Bone Miner Res, vol.32, pp.237-242, 2017.