S. Beck, F. P. Mockenhaupt, and U. Bienzle, Multiplicity of Plasmodium falciparum infection in pregnancy, The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol.65, pp.631-636, 2001.

L. M. Cohee, L. Kalilani-phiri, and P. Mawindo, Parasite dynamics in the peripheral blood and the placenta during pregnancy-associated malaria infection, Malar J, vol.15, p.483, 2016.

G. Cottrell, A. Moussiliou, and A. Luty, Sub-microscopic Plasmodium falciparum Infections Are Associated With Maternal Anemia, Premature Births, and Low Birth Weight, Clin Infect Dis, vol.60, pp.1481-1488, 2015.

S. Dellicour, A. J. Tatem, and C. A. Guerra, Quantifying the number of pregnancies at risk of malaria in 2007: a demographic study, PLoS Med, vol.7, p.1000221, 2010.

P. E. Duffy and M. Fried, Malaria during pregnancy: parasites, antibodies and chondroitin sulphate A, Biochem Soc Trans, vol.27, pp.478-482, 1999.

O. E. Fadlelseed, M. E. Osman, and N. M. Shamseldin, Plasmodium falciparum genotypes in matched peripheral, placental and umbilical cord blood in an area characterised by unstable malaria transmission in eastern Sudan, Heliyon, vol.3, p.326, 2017.

M. Fleischhacker, The 2nd International Symposium on Circulating Nucleic Acids in Plasma and Serum (CNAPS-2), vol.6, pp.364-368, 2001.

N. Francine, B. Damien, and F. Anna, Characterization of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection and its risk factors in pregnant women from the Republic of Congo, Acta Tropica, vol.153, pp.111-115, 2016.

M. Fried and P. E. Duffy, Adherence of Plasmodium falciparum to Chondroitin Sulfate A in the Human Placenta, Science, vol.272, pp.1502-1504, 1996.

B. Genton, I. Betuela, and I. Felger, A recombinant blood-stage malaria vaccine reduces Plasmodium falciparum density and exerts selective pressure on parasite populations in a phase 1-2b trial in Papua New Guinea, J Infect Dis, vol.185, pp.820-827, 2002.

J. Guitard, P. Andersen, and C. Ermont, Plasmodium falciparum population dynamics in a cohort of pregnant women in Senegal, Malaria Journal, vol.9, p.165, 2010.

L. Hviid, The case for PfEMP1-based vaccines to protect pregnant women against Plasmodium falciparum malaria, Expert Review of Vaccines, vol.10, pp.1405-1414, 2011.

R. Ibara-okabande, F. Koukouikila-koussounda, and M. Ndounga, Reduction of multiplicity of infections but no change in msp2 genetic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Congolese children after introduction of artemisinincombination therapy, Malaria Journal, vol.11, p.410, 2012.

S. Jafari-guemouri, N. T. Ndam, and G. Bertin, Demonstration of a High Level of Parasite Population Homology by Quantification of Plasmodium falciparum Alleles in Matched Peripheral, Placental, and Umbilical Cord Blood Samples, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol.43, pp.2980-2983, 2005.

&. Kamwendo, &. Dzinjalamala, &. Kanjala, and . Cc, Plasmodium falciparum: PCR detection and genotyping of isolates from peripheral, placental, and cord blood of pregnant Malawian women and their infants

F. Kassberger, A. Birkenmaier, and A. Khattab, PCR typing of Plasmodium falciparum in matched peripheral, placental and umbilical cord blood, Parasitology Research, vol.88, pp.1073-1079, 2002.

F. Koukouikila-koussounda, D. Bakoua, and A. Fesser, High prevalence of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance-associated mutations in Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from pregnant women in Brazzaville, 2015.

, Genetics and Evolution, vol.33, pp.32-36

O. Maïga-ascofaré, R. Rakotozandrindrainy, and M. Girmann, Molecular epidemiology and seroprevalence in asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections of Malagasy pregnant women in the highlands, Malaria Journal, vol.14, 2015.

P. I. Mayengue, H. Rieth, and A. Khattab, Sub-microscopic Plasmodium falciparum infections and multiplicity of infection in matched peripheral, placental and umbilical cord blood samples from Gabonese women, Tropical Medicine and International Health, vol.9, pp.949-958, 2004.

F. P. Mockenhaupt, B. Rong, and H. Till, Sub-microscopic Plasmodium falciparum infections in pregnancy in Ghana, Tropical Medicine and International Health, vol.5, pp.167-173, 2000.

A. Moussiliou, Y. De-tove, and J. Doritchamou, High rates of parasite recrudescence following intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine during pregnancy in Benin, Malaria Journal, vol.12, p.195, 2013.

F. Nosten, S. J. Rogerson, and J. G. Beeson, Malaria in pregnancy and the endemicity spectrum: what can we learn?, Trends in Parasitology, vol.20, pp.425-432, 2004.

F. Ntoumi, J. C. Vouvoungui, and R. Ibara, Malaria burden and case management in the Republic of Congo: limited use and application of rapid diagnostic tests results, BMC Public Health, vol.13, 2013.

O. Ojurongbe, C. N. Nguetse, and S. A. Fayemiwo, High prevalence of dihydrofolate reductase gene mutations in Plasmodium falciparum parasites among pregnant women in Nigeria after reported use of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, Pathogens and Global Health, vol.112, pp.86-92, 2018.

L. C. Okell, A. C. Ghani, E. Lyons, and C. J. Drakeley, Sub-microscopic Infection in Plasmodium falciparum -Endemic Populations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol.200, pp.1509-1517, 2009.

I. Omalu, C. Mgbemena, and A. Mgbemena, Prevalence of Congenital Malaria in Minna, Journal of Tropical Medicine, vol.2012, pp.1-5, 2012.

S. Omer, E. Khalil, H. Ali, and A. Sharief, Sub-microscopic and multiple plasmodium falciparum infections in pregnant Sudanese women, N Am J Med Sci, vol.3, pp.137-141, 2011.

A. Ouédraogo, A. B. Tiono, and A. Diarra, Transplacental Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in a Highly Malaria Endemic Area of Burkina Faso, Journal of Tropical Medicine, vol.2012, pp.1-7, 2012.

A. L. Ouédraogo, B. P. Gonçalves, and A. Gnémé, Dynamics of the Human Infectious Reservoir for Malaria Determined by Mosquito Feeding Assays and Ultrasensitive Malaria Diagnosis in Burkina Faso, J Infect Dis, vol.213, pp.90-99, 2016.

E. M. Riley, G. E. Wagner, B. D. Akanmori, and K. A. Koram, Do maternally acquired antibodies protect infants from malaria infection?, Parasite Immunology, vol.23, pp.51-59, 2001.

F. Saute, C. Menendez, and A. Mayor, Malaria in pregnancy in rural Mozambique: the role of parity, sub-microscopic and multiple Plasmodium falciparum infections, Tropical Medicine and International Health, vol.7, pp.19-28, 2002.

T. Smith, H. P. Beck, and A. Kitua, Age dependence of the multiplicity of Plasmodium falciparum infections and of other malariological indices in an area of high endemicity, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, vol.93, pp.15-20, 1999.

R. W. Steketee, J. J. Wirima, and C. C. Campbell, Developing effective strategies for malaria prevention programs for pregnant African women, Am J Trop Med Hyg, vol.55, pp.95-100, 1996.

H. Sturrock, M. S. Hsiang, and J. M. Cohen, Targeting Asymptomatic Malaria Infections: Active Surveillance in Control and Elimination, PLoS Medicine, vol.10, p.1001467, 2013.

G. Snounou, S. Viriyakosol, and X. P. Zhu, High sensitivity of detection of human malaria parasites by the use of nested polymerase chain reaction, Mol Biochem Parasitol, vol.61, issue.93, p.90077, 1993.

S. L. Takala, D. Coulibaly, and M. A. Thera, Dynamics of Polymorphism in a Malaria Vaccine Antigen at a Vaccine-Testing Site in Mali, PLoS Medicine, vol.4, p.93, 2007.

S. L. Takala and C. V. Plowe, Genetic diversity and malaria vaccine design, testing and efficacy: preventing and overcoming 'vaccine resistant malaria, Parasite Immunology, vol.31, pp.560-573, 2009.

J. F. Trape and A. Zoulani, Malaria and urbanization in central Africa: the example of Brazzaville. Part II: Results of entomological surveys and epidemiological analysis, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg, vol.81, issue.2, pp.10-18, 1987.

T. Mbuyi, M. L. Bouyou-akotet, M. K. Mawili-mboumba, and D. P. , Molecular Detection of Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Matched Peripheral and Placental Blood Samples from Delivering Women in Libreville, Gabon. Malaria Research and Treatment, vol.2014, pp.1-6, 2014.

A. Walker-abbey, R. R. Djokam, A. Eno, R. F. Leke, V. P. Titanji et al., Malaria in pregnant Cameroonian women: the effect of age and gravidity on submicroscopic and mixedspecies infections and multiple parasite genotypes, Am J Trop Med Hyg, vol.72, issue.3, pp.229-264, 2005.

, World Malaria report, WHO, 2005.