Numerical simulation of grassland fires behavior using an implicit physical multiphase model

Abstract : 12 This study reports 3D numerical simulations of the ignition and the propagation of 13 grassland fires. The mathematical model is based on a multiphase formulation and on a 14 homogenization approach that consists in averaging the conservation equations (mass, 15 momentum, energy …) governing the evolution of variables representing the state of the 16 vegetation/atmosphere system, inside a control volume containing both the solid-17 vegetation phase and the surrounding gaseous phase. This preliminary operation results 18 in the introduction of source/sink additional terms representing the interaction between 19 the gaseous phase and the solid-fuel particles. This study was conducted at large scale in 20 grassland because it represents the scale at which the behavior of the fire front presents 21 most similarities with full scale wildfires and also because of the existence of a large 22 number of relatively well controlled experiments performed in Australia and in the 23 United States. The simulations were performed for a tall grass, on a flat terrain, and for 24 six values of the 10-m open wind speed ranged between 1 and 12 m/s. The results are in 25 fairly good agreement with experimental data, with the predictions of operational 26 empirical and semi-empirical models, such as the McArthur model (MK5) in Australia and 27 the Rothermel model (BEHAVE) in USA, as well as with the predictions of other fully 3D 28 physical fire models (FIRETEC and WFDS). The comparison with the literature was 29 mainly based on the estimation of the rate of fire spread (ROS) and of the fire intensity, 30 as well as on the analysis of the fire-front shape. 31 32
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Nicolas Frangieh, Dominique Morvan, Sofiane Meradji, Gilbert Accary, Oleg Bessonov. Numerical simulation of grassland fires behavior using an implicit physical multiphase model. Fire Safety Journal, Elsevier, 2018, 102, pp.37-47. ⟨10.1016/j.firesaf.2018.06.004⟩. ⟨hal-02114073⟩

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