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Diversité génétique, variation géographique et flux géniques chez quelques Lépidoptères Rhopalocères français

Abstract : We present here a comparative and synthetic study of the genetic structure of the populations of three French butterfly species, Proclossiana eunomia, Parnassius apollo and Euphydryas aurinia. Using allozyme electrophoresis, it is possible to estimate the level of genetic variation within and between populations of these species in various regions of France and neighbouring countries. These data also allow us to suggest an explanation of this variation: present functioning of populations and metapopulations, adaptation to foodplants and history of the European biomes during the last twenty millenia. Each of the presented cases presents a biogeographical specificity: very disjunct distribution of the “glacial relict” type (Proclossiana eunomia), widespread mountain species, presently in strong regression (Parnassius apollo), ecologically very diversified species (Euphydryas aurinia). Generally speaking, genetic variation is large at both local and regional scale in southern regions where the genetic structure follows a clear geographic structure. Northern populations show a lower genetic diversity and a confused genetic structure, with an isolation-by-distance effect lower or absent. This phenomenon is the most obvious in P. eunomia populations resulting from a deliberate introduction in northeastern Massif Central 25 years ago. In the case of E. aurinia, the adaptation to different foodplants plays a rôle in genetic differentiation and its geographic variation. These characteristics can be explained at least in part by the postglacial colonization of northern Europe from southern refugia where temperate and mediterranean biomes were concentrated during glacial times. This extension has been accompanied by a loss of genetic diversity and a variation without clearcut geographic organization. Otherwise, the very large ecological diversity of southern Europe has allowed and still allows a larger genetic differentiation within species. The northwards shift of species distribution associated with present climate change is therefore likely to cause a severe loss of genetic diversity within species.
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Henri Descimon, Marie Zimmermann, Emmanuel Cosson, Bernard Barascud, Gabriel Neve. Diversité génétique, variation géographique et flux géniques chez quelques Lépidoptères Rhopalocères français. Genetics Selection Evolution, 2001, ⟨10.1186/BF03500882⟩. ⟨hal-02367189⟩

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