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Environmental health risks perceptions: results from cross-sectional surveys in Southeastern France

Abstract : Background: Arsenic is a toxic metalloid element frequently found in the environment. Chronic arsenic exposure is a critical public health issue in many countries since the identification of arsenic and its compounds as human carcinogens by the World Health Organization. After absorption, inorganic arsenic (iAs) is mainly methylated into monomethylated and dimethylated compounds (MMA, DMA), which are then excreted through the kidney together with unmethylated iAs. Whether the methylation process is to detoxify or potentiate arsenic toxicity, however, remains an ongoing debate. The purpose of this systematic review was to conduct a comprehensive meta-analysis to estimate the association between arsenic exposure and urothelial cancer. Methods: 10 observational studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review. IAs%, MMA% and DMA% were extracted from each paper. Weighted Mean Differences with 95% confidence intervals were defined according to Cases minus Controls. Pooled risk estimates from individual studies were assessed using random effects models. Meta-regression analysis was performed to estimate the extent of urothelial cancer risk as a function of iAs%, MMA% and DMA%. Results: Results showed as patients with urothelial cancer presented higher level of urinary iAs% (WMD 2.70, 95%CI 0.64-4.76), MMA% (WMD 2.81, 95%CI 1.43-4.20) and DMA% (WMD-3.44, 95%CI-6.57-0.30). Conclusions: These findings suggest that higher level of iAs% and MMA% and lower level of DMA% were associated with an increased risk of urothelial cancer. Additional population based studies are needed to understand the role of arsenic in cancer development. Understanding the meaning of arsenic metabolism could improve the risk assessment of arsenic toxicity and provide a potential tool for disease prediction and prevention. Key messages: Higher level of iAs%, MMA% and DMA% were associated with an increased risk of urothelial cancer. Understanding the meaning of arsenic metabolism could improve the risk assessment of arsenic toxicity. Background: Heatwaves can lead to increased mortality. Portugal has a Heat-Health Warning System (HHWS) in place (ÍCARO system). Researchers at the Instituto Ricardo Jorge send a daily report with heat-related mortality forecasts to key stakeholders (e.g. Heat-Health Action Plans (HHAP) staff). HHAP practitioners issue warnings and implement measures to prevent heatwaves-related mortality. ICARO is amongst the recommended data sources to assess risk and issue warnings but its use and understanding is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to assess ÍCARO's use and understanding by key HHAP practitioners. Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews with national and regional HHAP practitioners. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analysed using thematic content analysis. Intercoder reliability was applied to a sample of segments from 5 of 6 interviews. Results: We conducted 6 interviews with 9 professionals (mean time 52 minutes). We identified 4 categories: Report's content and presentation, Report's reception and communication, ÍCARO and risk assessment, Other issues. Practitioners use ÍCARO and perceived it as very relevant tool. However, they mentioned several questions on its interpretation. Practitioners also felt their questions were not fully answered, given researchers' use of statistical terms. Finally, practitioners referred the need to assess risk at the local level, information not currently provided. We also identified the need for improved communication and report's clarity. Conclusions: Our study stresses the need for an integrated collaboration between experts within HHWS and HHAP. Despite ICARO's understanding being challenging, practitioners consider it a relevant tool. Researchers should use less statistical language and clarify ÍCARO interpretation. Practitioners' needs should be considered when developing or revising tools. We are currently implementing some of these recommendations in an attempt to close the gap between researchers and practitioners.
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Contributor : Isabelle Combe <>
Submitted on : Friday, January 31, 2020 - 2:43:27 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, February 4, 2020 - 1:33:11 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Friday, May 1, 2020 - 3:20:28 PM

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  • HAL Id : hal-02462700, version 1

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Aurélie Bocquier, Sébastien Cortaredona, Muriel Andrieu-Semmel, L. Dagnet, V Pouget, et al.. Environmental health risks perceptions: results from cross-sectional surveys in Southeastern France. 12th European Public Health Conference, Nov 2019, Marseille, France. ⟨hal-02462700⟩

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