D. Addington, J. Addington, E. Maticka-tyndale, and J. Joyce, Reliability and validity of a depression rating scale for schizophrenics, Schizophrenia Research, vol.6, pp.201-208, 1992.

K. Ahn, S. S. An, Y. Y. Shugart, and J. L. Rapoport, Common polygenic variation and risk for childhood-onset schizophrenia, Molecular Psychiatry, vol.21, issue.1, pp.94-96, 2016.

J. Alaghband-rad, K. Mckenna, C. T. Gordon, K. E. Albus, S. D. Hamburger et al., Childhood-onset schizophrenia: The severity of premorbid course, Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, vol.34, issue.10, pp.1273-1283, 1995.

, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 2013.

, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, DSM IV-R), 2000.

R. F. Asarnow, J. Asamen, E. Granholm, T. Sherman, J. M. Watkins et al., Cognitive/neuropsychological studies of children with a schizophrenic disorder, Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol.20, issue.4, pp.647-669, 1994.

T. Ballageer, A. Malla, R. Manchanda, J. Takhar, and R. Haricharan, Is adolescent-onset first-episode psychosis different from adult onset, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol.44, issue.8, pp.782-789, 2005.

P. Biswas, S. Malhotra, A. Malhotra, and N. Gupta, Comparative study of neuropsychological correlates in schizophrenia with onset in childhood, adolescence and adulthood, European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol.15, issue.6, pp.360-366, 2006.

P. Biswas, S. Malhotra, A. Malhotra, and N. ;. Gupta, Comparative study of neurological soft signs in schizophrenia with onset in childhood, adolescence and adulthood, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol.115, issue.4, pp.295-303, 1972.

O. Bodlund, G. Kullgren, L. Ekselius, E. Lindström, and L. Von-knorring, Axis V-Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. Evaluation of a self-report version, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol.90, issue.5, pp.342-347, 1994.

N. Boonstra, R. Klaassen, S. Sytema, M. Marshall, L. De-haan et al., Duration of untreated psychosis and negative symptoms -A systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data, Schizophrenia Research, vol.142, issue.1-3, pp.12-19, 2012.

E. Bulzacka, J. E. Meyers, L. Boyer, T. Le-gloahec, G. Fond et al., Wais-IV Seven Subtest short form: Validity and clinical use in Schizophrenia, Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, vol.31, issue.8, pp.915-925, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01482379

L. Chen, A. Selvendra, A. Stewart, and D. Castle, Risk factors in early and late onset schizophrenia, Comprehensive Psychiatry, vol.80, pp.155-162, 2018.

N. Coulon, Liens entre troubles du spectre autistique et schizophrénies précoces, 2015.

C. M. Diaz-caneja, L. Pina-camacho, A. Rodriguez-quiroga, D. Fraguas, M. Parellada et al., Predictors of outcome in early-onset psychosis: A systematic review, Nature Partners Journal Schizophrenia, vol.1, 2015.

J. Endicott, R. L. Spitzer, J. L. Fleiss, and J. Cohen, The global assessment scale. A procedure for measuring overall severity of psychiatric disturbance, Archives of General Psychiatry, vol.33, issue.6, p.6012, 1976.

M. B. First, R. L. Spitzer, M. Gibbon, and J. B. Williams, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders -Patient Edition (SCID-I/P, version 2.0, 4/97 revision), Biometrics Research Department, 1997.

C. Fleischhaker, E. Schulz, K. Tepper, M. Martin, K. Henninghausen et al., Long term course of adolescent schizophrenia, Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol.31, issue.3, pp.769-780, 2005.

G. Fond, L. Boyer, M. Andrianarisoa, O. Godin, L. Brunel et al., Risk factors for increased duration of untreated psychosis. Results from the FACE-SZ dataset, Schizophrenia Research, vol.195, pp.529-533, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01696808

H. Fujino, C. Sumiyoshi, Y. Yasuda, H. Yamamori, M. Fyjimoto et al., Estimated cognitive decline in patients with schizophrenia: A multicenter study, Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, vol.71, issue.5, pp.294-300, 2017.

M. S. Gazzaniga, Forty-five years of split brain research and still going strong, Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol.6, issue.8, pp.653-659, 2005.

P. Gochman, R. Miller, and J. L. Rapoport, Childhood-onset schizophrenia: The challenge of diagnosis, Current Psychiatry Reports, vol.13, issue.5, pp.321-322, 2011.

C. T. Gordon, J. A. Frazier, K. Mckenna, J. Giedd, A. Zametkin et al., Childhood onset schizophrenia: An NIMH study in progress, Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol.20, pp.697-712, 1994.

D. Gourion, R. Gourevitch, J. Le-provost, J. Olié, H. Lôo et al., L'hypothèse neurodéveloppementale dans la schizophrénie. L'encéphale, vol.30, pp.95421-95429, 2004.

C. Hollis, Developmental precursors of child-and adolescent-onset schizophrenia and affective psychoses: Diagnostic specificity and continuity with symptom dimensions, The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol.182, issue.1, pp.37-44, 2003.

A. Holmén, M. Juuhl-langseth, R. Thormodsen, T. Ueland, I. Agartz et al., Executive function in early-and adult onset schizophrenia, Schizophrenia Research, vol.142, issue.1-3, pp.177-182, 2012.

P. Jeppesen, L. Petersen, A. Thorup, M. Abel, J. Øhlenschlaeger et al., The association between pre-morbid adjustment, duration of untreated psychosis and outcome in first-episode psychosis, Psychological Medicine, vol.38, issue.8, pp.1157-1166, 2008.

I. Joa, J. O. Johannessen, J. Langeveld, S. Friis, I. Melle et al., Baseline profiles of adolescent vs. adult-onset first-episode psychosis in an early detection program, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol.119, issue.6, pp.494-500, 2009.

B. Kanchanatawan, S. Sirivichayakul, K. Ruxrungtham, A. F. Carvalho, M. Geffard et al., Deficit, but not nondeficit, schizophrenia is characterized by Mucosa-Associated Activation of the Tryptophan Catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway with highly specific increases in IgA responses directed to picolinic, xanthurenic, and quinolinic acid, Molecular Neurobiology, vol.55, issue.2, pp.1524-1536, 2018.

B. I. Karp, M. Garvey, L. K. Jacobsen, J. A. Frazier, S. D. Hamburger et al., Abnormal neurologic maturation in adolescents with early onset schizophrenia, American Journal of Psychiatry, vol.158, issue.1, pp.118-122, 2001.

S. R. Kay, A. Fiszbein, and L. A. Opfer, The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia, Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol.13, issue.2, p.261, 1987.

M. Krebs, A. Gut-fayand, M. Bourdel, J. Dischamp, and J. Olié, Validation and factorial structure of a standardized neurological examination assessing neurological soft signs in schizophrenia, Schizophrenia Research, vol.45, issue.3, pp.206-212, 2000.

W. S. Kremen, S. Vinogradov, J. H. Poole, C. A. Schaefer, R. F. Deicken et al., Cognitive decline in schizophrenia from childhood to midlife: A 33-year longitudinal birth cohort study, Schizophrenia Research, vol.118, issue.1-3, pp.1-5, 2010.

S. Kumra, E. Wiggs, J. Bedwell, A. K. Smith, E. Arling et al., Neuropsychological deficits in pediatric patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia and psychotic disorder not otherwise specified, Schizophrenia Research, vol.42, issue.2, pp.135-144, 2000.

C. Laidi, A. Prigent, A. Plas, M. Leboyer, G. Fond et al., Factors associated with direct health care costs in schizophrenia: Results from the FACE-SZ French dataset, European Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.28, issue.1, pp.24-36, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02341705

S. Leucht, J. M. Kane, W. Kissling, J. Haman, E. Etschel et al., What does the PANSS mean?, Schizophrenia Research, vol.79, issue.2-3, pp.231-238, 2005.

E. O. Lichtenberger and A. S. Kaufman, Essentials of Wais IV assessment, 2009.

S. Luoma, H. Hakko, T. Ollinen, M. Järvelin, and S. Lindeman, Association between age at onset and clinical features of schizophrenia: The Northern Finland 1966 birth cohort study, European Psychiatry, vol.23, issue.5, pp.331-335, 2008.

J. Lutz, , 1972.

A. Mackinnon and R. Mulligan, The estimation of premorbid intelligence levels in French speakers. L'encéphale, vol.31, pp.31-43, 2005.

M. Marshall, S. Lewis, A. Lockwood, R. Drake, P. Jones et al., Association between duration of untreated psychosis and outcome in cohorts of first episode patients: A systematic review, Archives of General Psychiatry, vol.62, issue.9, p.975, 2005.

T. H. Mcglashan, Duration of untreated psychosis in first-episode schizophrenia: Marker or determinant of course?, Biological Psychiatry, vol.46, issue.99, pp.84-84, 1999.

K. Mckenna, C. T. Gordon, M. Lenane, D. Kaysen, K. Fahey et al., Looking for childhood-onset schizophrenia: The first 71 cases screened, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol.33, issue.5, pp.636-644, 1994.

A. Millier, U. Schmidt, M. C. Angermeyer, D. Chauhan, V. Murthy et al., Humanistic burden in schizophrenia: A literature review, Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol.54, pp.85-93, 2014.

A. Murru and B. Carpiniello, Duration of untreated illness as a key to early intervention in schizophrenia: A review, Neuroscience Letters, vol.669, pp.59-67, 2018.

H. E. Nelson and A. Connell, Dementia: The estimation of premorbid intelligence levels using the New Adult Reading Test, Cortex, vol.14, issue.2, pp.234-244, 1978.

V. Oertel-knochel and D. E. Linden, Cerebral asymmetry in schizophrenia, Neuroscientist, vol.17, issue.5, pp.456-467, 2011.

R. C. Oldfield, The assessment and analysis of handedness: The Edinburgh inventory, Neuropsychologia, vol.9, issue.1, pp.97-113, 1971.

M. Penttila, E. Jaaskelainen, N. Hirvonen, M. Isohanni, and J. Miettunen, Duration of untreated psychosis as predictor of long-term outcome in schizophrenia: Systematic review and meta-analysis, The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol.205, issue.2, pp.88-94, 2014.

D. O. Perkins, H. Gu, K. Boteva, and J. A. Lieberman, Relationship between duration of untreated psychosis and outcome in first-episode schizophrenia: A critical review and meta-analysis, The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol.162, issue.10, pp.1785-1804, 2005.

A. Rammou, H. L. Fisher, S. Johnson, B. Major, N. Rahaman et al., Negative symptoms in first-episode psychosis: Clinical correlates and 1-year follow-up outcomes in London Early Intervention Services, Early Intervention in Psychiatry, vol.13, issue.3, pp.443-452, 2019.

J. L. Rapoport and N. Gogtay, Childhood onset schizophrenia: Support for a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder, International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, vol.29, issue.3, pp.251-258, 2011.

J. L. Rapoport and G. Inoff-germain, Update on childhood-onset schizophrenia, Current Psychiatry Reports, vol.2, issue.5, pp.410-415, 2000.

H. E. Remschmidt, E. Schulz, M. Martin, A. Warnke, and G. Trott, Childhood onset schizophrenia: History of the concept and recent studies, Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol.20, issue.4, pp.727-744, 1994.

H. Remschmidt and F. Theisen, Early-onset schizophrenia, Neuropsychobiology, vol.66, issue.1, pp.63-69, 2012.

B. Röpcke and C. Eggers, Early-onset schizophrenia: A 15-year follow-up, European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol.14, issue.6, pp.341-350, 2005.

J. M. Rubio and C. U. Correll, Duration and relevance of untreated psychiatric disorders, 1: Psychotic disorders, The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol.78, issue.3, pp.358-359, 2017.

T. Sato, R. Bottlender, A. Schröter, and H. Möller, Psychopathology of early-onset versus late-onset schizophrenia revisited: An observation of 473 neuroleptic-naive patients before and after first-admission treatments, Schizophrenia Research, vol.67, issue.2-3, pp.175-183, 2004.

B. G. Schimmelmann, P. Conus, S. Cotton, P. D. Mcgorry, and M. Lambert, Pre-treatment, baseline, and outcome differences between early-onset and adult-onset psychosis in an epidemiological cohort of 636 first-episode patients, Schizophrenia Research, vol.95, issue.1-3, pp.1-8, 2007.

F. Schürhoff, G. Fond, F. Berna, E. Bulzacka, J. Vilain et al., A national network of schizophrenia expert centres: An innovative tool bridge the research practice gap, European Psychiatry, vol.30, issue.6, pp.728-735, 2015.

F. Schürhoff, J. L. Golmard, A. Szöke, F. Bellivier, A. Berthier et al., Admixture analysis of age at onset in schizophrenia, Schizophrenia Research, vol.71, issue.1, pp.35-41, 2004.

I. Sommer, N. Ramsey, R. Kahn, A. Aleman, and A. Bouma, , 2001.

. Handedness, language lateralisation and anatomical asymmetry in schizophrenia: Meta-analysis, British Journal of Psychiatry, vol.178, pp.344-351

M. Stentebjerg-olesen, A. K. Pagsberg, A. Fink-jensen, C. U. Correll, and P. Jeppesen, Clinical characteristics and predictors of outcome of schizophrenia-spectrum psychosis in children and adolescents: A systematic review, Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, vol.26, issue.5, pp.410-427, 2016.

T. Suzuki, H. Uchida, H. Sakurai, T. Ishizuki, K. Tsunoda et al., Relationships between global assessment of functioning and other rating scales in clinical trials for schizophrenia, Psychiatry Research, vol.227, issue.2-3, pp.265-269, 2015.

J. Van-os and S. Kapur, Schizophrenia. Lancet, vol.374, issue.9690, pp.635-645, 2009.

N. S. Vyas, M. Hadjulis, A. Vourdas, P. Byrne, and S. Frangou, The Maudsley early onset schizophrenia study: Predictors of psychosocial outcome at 4-year follow-up, European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol.16, issue.7, pp.465-470, 2007.

D. Wechsler, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 2008.

S. Werry, Child and Adolescent (Early Onset) Schizophrenia: A review in light of DSM-III-R, Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol.22, 1992.

T. White, B. C. Ho, J. Ward, D. O'leary, and N. C. Andreasen, Neuropsychological performance in first episode adolescents with schizophrenia: A comparison with first episode adults and adolescent control subjects, Biological Psychiatry, vol.60, issue.5, pp.463-471, 2006.

N. Coulon, O. Godin, and E. Bulzacka, Global burden of mental disorders and the need for a comprehensive, coordinated response from health and social sectors at the country level. Executive Board. How to cite this article, World Health Organization, vol.10, p.1495, 2011.