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Changes in malaria epidemiology in France and worldwide, 2000–2015

Abstract : In 2015, 212 million new cases of malaria were reported, causing 429,000 deaths. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated a 41% decrease in the number of new cases worldwide between 2000 and 2015. The number of deaths from malaria fell by 62% worldwide and by 71% in Africa. In mainland France, malaria is mainly imported by travelers or migrants from endemic areas, in particular sub-Saharan Africa (95%). In France, the number of imported malaria cases, mainly due to Plasmodium falciparum (85%), was estimated at about 82,000 for the period 2000-2015. Over the same period, 6,468 cases of malaria were reported in the French armed forces, of which 2,430 cases (37.6%) were considered as imported because occurring outside of endemic areas. The number of malaria cases also fell between 2000 and 2015 in Mayotte and French Guiana, a malaria transmission zone. Mayotte has entered the elimination of malaria with less than 15 cases per year. In French Guiana, between 300 and 500 cases have been reported annually in recent years. The decline in morbidity and mortality is usually attributed to vector control measures and improved access to effective treatments. However, the Anopheles mosquitoes that transmit the disease have developed resistance against most insecticides. Similarly, malaria parasites have developed resistance against most of the antimalarial drugs used as prevention or treatment, even the latest marketed combinations such as artemisinin-based combination therapies.
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M. Thellier, F. Simard, Lise Musset, M. Cot, G. Velut, et al.. Changes in malaria epidemiology in France and worldwide, 2000–2015. Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses, 2020, 50 (2), pp.99-112. ⟨10.1016/j.medmal.2019.06.002⟩. ⟨hal-02507727⟩



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