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Physico-chemical and agronomic results of soil remediation by In Situ Chemical Reduction applied to a chlordecone-contaminated nitisol at plot scale in a French Caribbean banana plantation

Abstract : The In Situ Chemical Reduction (ISCR) process was tested in a nitisol in a French Caribbean banana plantation using five different soil amendments. The addition of 2.8% or 4.0% of Zero Valent Iron (ZVI; dw/dw, 2 different trial plots) in the 0–40-cm soil layer lowered the initial chlordecone (CLD) concentration by up to 74% or 69% in 37 days or 94 days, with 75% of the decrease achieved after only 21 or 24 days of treatment depending on the trial plot. The addition of commercially available Daramend® was also tested by applying the 6% dose (dw/dw) recommended by the manufacturer and using either the regular alfalfa-based product or a bagasse-based product specifically formulated for the study. Both significantly lowered CLD concentrations, but to a lesser extent than with the ZVI-only amendment. A bagasse-ZVI mixture prepared on site produced results slightly better than the two Daramend®. The percentage decreases in CLD concentrations were correlated with the negative redox potentials achieved. In all the trial plots, dechlorinated transformation products appeared in the soil and soil water as the CLD concentrations decreased, with H atoms replacing up to 4 and 7 of the 10 Cl atoms, respectively. None of these degradation products appeared to accumulate in the soil or soil water during the treatment. Instead, the reverse occurred, with an overall downward trend in their concentrations over time. The effects of ISCR treatment on agronomic and human health–related parameters were measured in three different crops. The radishes produced with some treatments were visually of lower quality or smaller in size than those grown in the control plots. Lower yields were observed for the cucumbers and sweet potatoes grown after applying the bagasse-based amendments. Mortality among cucumber seedlings was observed after treatment with ZVI only. Simple operational solutions should suffice to remedy these negative agronomic effects. As regards human health–related effects, the CLD concentrations in radishes grown with three of the amendments were significantly lower than in the two control plots and well below the maximum residue level (MRL), which was substantially exceeded in the radishes grown on untreated soil. For cucumbers, the treatments with regular Daramend® and with a local bagasse-ZVI mixture produced fruits with CLD below the MRL and also below the concentrations in one of the two control plots. As for the sweet potatoes, adding a bagasse-ZVI mixture had a significant positive effect by decreasing contamination below the levels in the two control plots and below the MRL.
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Christophe Mouvet, Bastien Collet, Jean-Marie Gaude, Luc Rangon, Sébastien Bristeau, et al.. Physico-chemical and agronomic results of soil remediation by In Situ Chemical Reduction applied to a chlordecone-contaminated nitisol at plot scale in a French Caribbean banana plantation. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Springer Verlag, 2020, ⟨10.1007/s11356-020-07603-z⟩. ⟨hal-02527259⟩

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