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Transcripts with systematic nucleotide deletion of 1-12 nucleotide in human mitochondrion suggest potential non-canonical transcription

Abstract : Raw transcriptomic data contain numerous RNA reads whose homology with template DNA doesn't match canonical transcription. Transcriptome analyses usually ignore such nonca-nonical RNA reads. Here, analyses search for noncanonical mitochondrial RNAs systematically deleting 1 to 12 nucleotides after each transcribed nucleotide triplet, producing deletion-RNAs (delRNAs). We detected delRNAs in the human whole cell and purified mito-chondrial transcriptomes, and in Genbank's human EST database corresponding to systematic deletions of 1 to 12 nucleotides after each transcribed trinucleotide. DelRNAs detected in both transcriptomes mapped along with 55.63% of the EST delRNAs. A bias exists for delRNAs covering identical mitogenomic regions in both transcriptomic and EST datasets. Among 227 delRNAs detected in these 3 datasets, 81.1% and 8.4% of delRNAs were mapped on mitochondrial coding and hypervariable region 2 of dloop. Del-transcription analyses of GenBank's EST database confirm observations from whole cell and purified mitochondrial transcriptomes, eliminating the possibility that detected delRNAs are false positives matches, cytosolic DNA/RNA nuclear contamination or sequencing artefacts. These detected delRNAs are enriched in frameshift-inducing homopolymers and are poor in frameshift-preventing circular code codons (a set of 20 codons which regulate reading frame detection, over-and underrepresented in coding and other frames of genes, respectively) suggesting a motif-based regulation of non-canonical transcription. These findings show that rare non-canonical transcripts exist. Such non canonical del-transcription does increases mitochondrial coding potential and non-coding regulation of intracellular mechanisms , and could explain the dark DNA conundrum.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, April 7, 2020 - 11:54:50 AM
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Ganesh Warthi, Herve Seligmann. Transcripts with systematic nucleotide deletion of 1-12 nucleotide in human mitochondrion suggest potential non-canonical transcription. PLoS ONE, Public Library of Science, 2019, 14 (5), pp.e0217356. ⟨10.1371/journal.pone.0217356⟩. ⟨hal-02529431⟩

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