T. Apostolidis and L. Dany, Pensée sociale et risques dans le domaine de la santé : le regard des représentations sociales, Psychologie Française, vol.57, issue.2, pp.67-81, 2012.

P. R. Appleby, L. C. Miller, and S. Rothspan, The paradox of trust for male couples: When risking is a part of loving, Personal Relationships, vol.6, issue.1, pp.81-93, 1999.

R. Arrington, J. Cofrancesco, and A. W. Wu, Questionnaires to measure sexual quality of life, Quality of Life Research, vol.13, issue.10, pp.1643-1658, 2004.

J. D. Auerbach and T. A. Hoppe, Beyond '"getting drugs into bodies"': Social science perspectives on preexposure prophylaxis for HIV, Journal of the International AIDS Society, vol.18, issue.4, 2015.

R. Bertoldo, S. Guignard, L. Dany, and T. Apostolidis, Health is in the eye of the beholder: The impact of social norms on perceived health dispositions, Swiss Journal of Psychology, vol.76, issue.2, pp.59-70, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01888420

A. Bouhnik, M. Préau, F. Lert, P. Peretti-watel, M. Schiltz et al., Unsafe sex in regular partnerships among heterosexual persons living with HIV: Evidence from a large representative sample of individuals attending outpatients services in France (ANRS-EN12-VESPA Study), AIDS, vol.21, pp.57-62, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01563629

V. Braun and V. Clarke, Using thematic analysis in psychology, Qualitative Research in Psychology, vol.3, issue.2, pp.77-101, 2006.

S. Caillaud and N. Kalampalikis, Focus groups and ecological practices: A psychosocial approach, Qualitative Research in Psychology, vol.10, issue.4, pp.382-401, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01206506

S. K. Calabrese and K. Underhill, How stigma surrounding the use of HIV preexposure prophylaxis undermines prevention and pleasure: A call to destigmatize "Truvada Whores, American Journal of Public Health, vol.105, issue.10, pp.1960-1964, 2015.

C. K. Campbell, A. M. Gómez, S. Dworkin, P. A. Wilson, K. K. Grisham et al., , 2014.

. Health and . Understood, Explicit and implicit condom decision-making processes among Black, White, and interracial same-sex male couples, Archives of Sexual Behavior, vol.43, issue.4, pp.697-706

A. Carter, N. Lachowsky, A. Rich, J. I. Forrest, P. Sereda et al., Gay and bisexual men's awareness and knowledge of treatment as prevention: findings from the Momentum Health Study in Vancouver, Canada. Journal of the International AIDS Society, vol.18, issue.1, 2015.

T. D. Conley, M. Perry, S. Gusakova, and J. L. Piemonte, Monogamous Halo effects: The stigma of nonmonogamy within collective sex environments, Archives of Sexual Behavior, vol.14, pp.395-412, 2018.

M. Danet, V. Coquelin, G. Quatremère, M. Suzan-monti, B. Spire et al., Community-based support in the ANRS ipergay trial: Improving adherence to the trial and access to overall health, Poster presented at the 12th AIDSImpact International Conference, 2015.

E. Demange and E. Henry, From collaborative research to community-based research. A methodological toolkit, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00880158

M. Di-ciaccio, C. Protiere, D. Rojas-castro, M. Suzan-monti, J. Chas et al., The ANRS-Ipergay trial, an opportunity to use qualitative research to understand the perception of the "participant"-physician relationship, ? for the ANRS IPERGAY Study Group, vol.30, issue.2, p.1468013, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02064686

A. Dubov, P. Galbo, F. L. Altice, and L. Fraenkel, Stigma and shame experiences by MSM who take PrEP for HIV prevention: A Qualitative Study, American Journal of Men's Health, vol.12, issue.6, pp.1843-1854, 2018.

E. M. Elst, . Der, J. Mbogua, D. Operario, G. Mutua et al., High acceptability of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis but challenges in adherence and use: Qualitative insights from a phase I trial of intermittent and daily PrEP in at-risk populations in Kenya, AIDS and Behavior, vol.17, issue.6, pp.2162-2172, 2012.

W. N. Elwood, K. Greene, and K. K. Carter, Gentlemen don't speak: Communication norms and condom use in bathhouses, Journal of Applied Communication Research, vol.31, issue.4, pp.277-297, 2003.

, EMIS 2010: The European men-who-have-sex-with-men internet survey: Findings from 38 countries, p.240, 2013.

U. Flick, S. Kvale, M. V. Angrosino, R. S. Barbour, M. Banks et al., The Sage qualitative research kit, 2007.

V. A. Fonner, S. L. Dalglish, C. E. Kennedy, R. Baggaley, K. R. O'reilly et al., Effectiveness and safety of oral HIV preexposure prophylaxis for all populations, AIDS, issue.12, pp.1973-1983, 2016.

J. S. Frankis, I. Young, K. Lorimer, M. Davis, and P. Flowers, Towards preparedness for PrEP: PrEP awareness and acceptability among MSM at high risk of HIV transmission who use sociosexual media in four Celtic nations: Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland and The Republic of Ireland: An online survey, Sexually Transmitted Infections, 2015.

S. Friese, Qualitative data analysis with ATLAS.ti, 2014.

K. E. Gamarel and S. A. Golub, Intimacy motivations and Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Adoption intentions among HIV-Negative Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in romantic relationships, Annals of Behavioral Medicine, vol.49, issue.2, pp.177-186, 2014.

A. Giddens, The transformation of intimacy: Sexuality, love and intimacy in modern societies, 1992.

S. A. Golub, T. J. Starks, G. Payton, and J. T. Parsons, The critical role of intimacy in the sexual risk behaviors of gay and bisexual men, AIDS and Behavior, vol.16, issue.3, pp.626-632, 2011.

R. M. Grant and K. A. Koester, What people want from sex and preexposure prophylaxis, Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS, vol.11, issue.1, pp.3-9, 2016.

R. M. Grant, J. R. Lama, P. L. Anderson, V. Mcmahan, A. Y. Liu et al., Preexposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.363, issue.27, pp.2587-2599, 2010.

K. Haar and A. J. Amato-gauci, European men who have sex with men still at risk of HIV infection despite three decades of prevention efforts, Eurosurveillance, vol.20, issue.14, 2015.

M. Holt, HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment as prevention: A review of awareness and acceptability among men who have sex with men in the Asia-Pacific region and the Americas, Sexual Health, vol.11, issue.2, pp.166-170, 2013.

A. L. Hotton, A. L. French, S. G. Hosek, S. R. Kendrick, D. Lemos et al., Relationship dynamics and sexual risk reduction strategies among heterosexual young adults: A qualitative study of sexually transmitted infection clinic attendees at an urban Chicago health center, AIDS Patient Care and STDs, vol.29, issue.12, pp.668-674, 2015.

X. Huang, J. Hou, A. Song, X. Liu, X. Yang et al., Efficacy and safety of oral TDF-based pre-exposure prophylaxis for men who have sex with men: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Frontiers in Pharmacology, vol.9, pp.1-11, 2018.

, Données épidémiologiques sur l'infection à VIH et les IST, 1er décembre, 2014.

B. A. Israel, A. J. Schulz, E. A. Parker, and A. B. Becker, Review of community-based research: Assessing partnership approaches to improve public health, Annual Review of Public Health, vol.19, issue.1, pp.173-202, 1998.

H. Joffe, Adherence to health messages: A social psychological perspective, International Dental Journal, vol.50, pp.295-303, 2000.

H. Joffe, Social representations and health psychology, Social Science Information, vol.41, issue.4, pp.559-580, 2002.

H. Joffe, Risk: From perception to social representation, British Journal of Social Psychology, vol.42, issue.1, pp.55-73, 2003.

N. Kalampalikis and V. Haas, More than a theory: A new map of social thought, Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, vol.38, issue.4, pp.449-459, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00495385

S. Keller, Methods work better when couples talk, Network, vol.16, issue.3, pp.10-11, 1996.

J. A. Kelly and S. C. Kalichman, Reinforcement value of unsafe sex as a predictor of condom use and continued HIV/AIDS risk behavior among gay and bisexual men. Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association, vol.17, issue.4, pp.328-335, 1998.

J. Kitzinger, The methodology of focus groups: The importance of interaction between research participants, Sociology of Health & Illness, vol.16, issue.1, pp.103-121, 1994.

R. Klein, Against health: How health became the new morality, pp.15-25, 2010.

K. Koester, K. R. Amico, A. Liu, V. Mcmahan, S. Hosek et al., Sex on PrEP: Qualitative findings from the iPrEx Open Label Extension (OLE) in the US, 2014.

N. Lorente, L. Fugon, M. P. Carrieri, C. Andreo, J. Le-gall et al., Acceptability of an "on-demand" pre-exposure HIV prophylaxis trial among men who have sex with men living in France, AIDS Care, vol.24, issue.4, pp.1-10, 2011.

K. Malterud, Qualitative research: Standards, challenges, and guidelines. The Lancet, vol.358, pp.5627-5633, 2001.

S. Mccormack, D. T. Dunn, M. Desai, D. I. Dolling, M. Gafos et al., Pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent the acquisition of HIV-1 infection (PROUD): Effectiveness results from the pilot phase of a pragmatic open-label randomised trial, The Lancet, vol.387, issue.15, pp.56-58, 2016.

N. Méthy, A. Velter, C. Semaille, and N. Bajos, Sexual behaviours of homosexual and bisexual men in France: A generational approach, PloS One, vol.10, issue.3, 2015.

J. Molina, PrEP roll out France. Oral communication presented at the WEWS08 PrEP Implementation: From Clinical Trials to Clinical Care, 21st International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2016), 2016.

J. Molina, C. Capitant, B. Spire, G. Pialoux, L. Cotte et al., On-demand preexposure prophylaxis in men at high risk for HIV-1 infection, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.373, issue.23, pp.2237-2246, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01429281

S. Moscovici, Social representations: Explorations in social psychology (Gerard Duveen), 2000.

J. T. Parsons, H. J. Rendina, J. M. Lassiter, T. H. Whitfield, T. J. Starks et al., Uptake of HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in a national cohort of gay and bisexual men in the United States: The motivational PrEP cascade, JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol.74, issue.3, pp.285-292, 2017.

P. Peng, S. Su, C. K. Fairley, M. Chu, S. Jiang et al., A global estimate of the acceptability of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV among men who have sex with men: A systematic review and meta-analysis, AIDS and Behavior, vol.22, issue.4, pp.1063-1074, 2018.

G. Y. Peters, R. A. Ruiter, and G. Kok, Threatening communication: A critical re-analysis and a revised metaanalytic test of fear appeal theory, Health Psychology Review, vol.7, issue.sup1, pp.8-31, 2013.

G. Prati, B. Zani, L. Pietrantoni, D. Scudiero, P. Perone et al., PEP and TasP awareness among Italian MSM, PLWHA, and high-risk heterosexuals and demographic, behavioral, and social correlates, PLOS ONE, vol.11, issue.6, 2016.

M. Préau, M. Mora, V. Laguette, C. Colombani, F. Boufassa et al., Identity, representations, and beliefs: HIV controllers living on the Frontier of good health and illness, Qualitative Health Research, vol.26, issue.11, pp.1483-1494, 2016.

G. Prestage, G. Brown, B. Allan, J. Ellard, and I. Down, Impact of peer support on behavior change among newly diagnosed Australian gay men, JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol.72, issue.5, pp.565-571, 2016.

N. Punyacharoensin, W. J. Edmunds, D. De-angelis, V. Delpech, G. Hart et al., Effect of pre-exposure prophylaxis and combination HIV prevention for men who have sex with men in the UK: A mathematical modelling study, The Lancet HIV, vol.3, issue.2, pp.56-65, 2016.

K. Race, Reluctant objects sexual pleasure as a problem for HIV biomedical prevention, GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, vol.22, issue.1, pp.1-31, 2016.

M. E. Randolph, S. D. Pinkerton, L. M. Bogart, H. Cecil, and P. R. Abramson, Sexual Pleasure and condom use, Archives of Sexual Behavior, vol.36, issue.6, pp.844-848, 2007.

M. Reece and B. Dodge, A study in sexual health applying the principles of community-based participatory research, Archives of Sexual Behavior, vol.33, issue.3, pp.235-247, 2004.

H. J. Rendina, T. H. Whitfield, C. Grov, T. J. Starks, and J. T. Parsons, Distinguishing hypothetical willingness from behavioral intentions to initiate HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP): Findings from a large cohort of gay and bisexual men in the U, S. Social Science & Medicine, vol.172, pp.115-123, 2017.

N. N. Sarkar, Barriers to condom use. The European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care, vol.13, pp.114-122, 2008.

C. D. Spinner, C. Boesecke, A. Zink, H. Jessen, H. Stellbrink et al., HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP): A review of current knowledge of oral systemic HIV PrEP in humans, Infection, vol.44, issue.2, pp.151-158, 2016.

P. S. Sullivan, L. Salazar, S. Buchbinder, and T. H. Sanchez, Estimating the proportion of HIV transmissions from main sex partners among men who have sex with men in five US cities, AIDS, vol.23, issue.9, pp.1153-1162, 2009.

I. Tavory and A. Swidler, Condom semiotics: Meaning and condom use in Rural Malawi, American Sociological Review, vol.74, issue.2, pp.171-189, 2009.

. Unaids, Maximizing the potential of a new HIV prevention method, Combination HIV prevention: Tailoring and coordinating biomedical, behavioural and structural strategies 10 to reduce new HIV infections. A UNAIDS discussion paper, 2010.

K. Underhill, Intimacy, condom use, and Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) acceptability among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in primary partnerships: A comment on Gamarel and Golub. Annals of Behavioral Medicine: A Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, vol.49, pp.151-153, 2015.

N. C. Ware, M. A. Wyatt, J. E. Haberer, J. M. Baeten, A. Kintu et al., What's love got to do with it? Explaining adherence to oral antiretroviral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV serodiscordant couples, Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol.59, issue.5, pp.463-468, 1999.

N. E. Williamson, J. Liku, K. Mcloughlin, I. K. Nyamongo, and F. Nakayima, A qualitative study of condom use among married couples in Kampala, Uganda. Reproductive Health Matters, vol.14, pp.28268-28273, 2006.

, Fast-track cities: Ending the AIDS epidemic. Cities achieving 90-90-90 targets by 2020. World Health Organization, World Health Organization, p.30, 2002.

I. Young, P. Flowers, and L. Mcdaid, Barriers to uptake and use of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) among communities most affected by HIV in the UK: Findings from a qualitative study in Scotland, BMJ Open, vol.4, issue.11, 2014.

I. Young, P. Flowers, and L. Mcdaid, Key factors in the acceptability of Treatment as Prevention (TasP) in Scotland: A qualitative study with communities affected by HIV, Sexually Transmitted Infections, 2014.