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Journal Articles FEBS Journal Year : 2020

Discovery of hyperstable carbohydrate‐active enzymes through metagenomics of extreme environments

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Abstract

The enzymes from hyperthermophilic microorganisms populating volcanic sites represent interesting cases of protein adaptation and biotransformations under conditions where conventional enzymes quickly denature. The difficulties in cultivating extremophiles severely limit access to this class of biocatalysts. To circumvent this problem, we embarked on the exploration of the biodiversity of the solfatara Pisciarelli, Agnano (Naples, Italy), to discover hyperthermophilic carbohydrate‐active enzymes (CAZymes) and to characterize the entire set of such enzymes in this environment (CAZome). Here, we report the results of the metagenomic analysis of two mud/water pools that greatly differ in both temperature and pH (T = 85 °C and pH 5.5; T = 92 °C and pH 1.5, for Pool1 and Pool2, respectively). DNA deep sequencing and following in silico analysis led to 14 934 and 17 652 complete ORFs in Pool1 and Pool2, respectively. They exclusively belonged to archaeal cells and viruses with great genera variance within the phylum Crenarchaeota, which reflected the difference in temperature and pH of the two Pools. Surprisingly, 30% and 62% of all of the reads obtained from Pool1 and 2, respectively, had no match in nucleotide databanks. Genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism were 15% and 16% of the total in the two Pools, with 278 and 308 putative CAZymes in Pool1 and 2, corresponding to ~ 2.0% of all ORFs. Biochemical characterization of two CAZymes of a previously unknown archaeon revealed a novel subfamily GH5_19 β‐mannanase/β‐1,3‐glucanase whose hemicellulose specificity correlates with the vegetation surrounding the sampling site, and a novel NAD+‐dependent GH109 with a previously unreported β‐N‐acetylglucosaminide/β‐glucoside specificity.

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hal-02612557 , version 1 (19-05-2020)

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Andrea Strazzulli, Beatrice Cobucci‐ponzano, Roberta Iacono, Rosa Giglio, Luisa Maurelli, et al.. Discovery of hyperstable carbohydrate‐active enzymes through metagenomics of extreme environments. FEBS Journal, 2020, 287 (6), pp.1116-1137. ⟨10.1111/febs.15080⟩. ⟨hal-02612557⟩
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