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Vector bionomics and malaria transmission in an area of sympatry of An. arabiensis, An. coluzzii and An. gambiae

Abstract : Despite extensive genetic studies on their variability and differentiation, few is known about the specific and relative role of An. coluzzii, An. gambiae and An. arabiensis in areas of sympatry. Indeed, their behavioral dissimilarities and divergent population dynamics can impact on malaria transmission level and intensity. This study was undertaken in four sympatric sites belonging to two different ecosystems with differential insecticide pressure to study the bionomics of these species and their relative role in malaria transmission. Mosquitoes were collected monthly from July to December 2011 when landing on human volunteers and by pyrethrum spray catches. Specimens belonging to the An. gambiae complex were further identified using molecular tools. Plasmodium falciparum infection and blood-feeding preferences were studied using the ELISA techniques. Overall, the three species were in sympatry in each of the four sites with the predominance of An. gambiae. Mosquito populations’ dynamics varied temporally depending on the rainy season for each zone. The anthropophilic rates varied between 45.7 and 78.1% for An. arabiensis, 81.8 and 100% for An. coluzzii and 80 and 96.7% for An. gambiae. Plasmodium infection rates were higher in An. gambiae (range: 2.17%–6.54%) while for An. arabiensis and An. coluzzii it varied respectively between 0–1.24% and 0–3.66%. Malaria transmission occured in each of the four sites both indoors and outdoors and was due mainly to An. gambiae. An. arabiensis and An. coluzzii played a limited role due both to a low anthropophilic rate and a lower biting rate for An. coluzzii in comparison with An. gambiae. This study showed that, while present in sympatric areas, species from the An. gambiae complex could exhibit differential involvement in malaria transmission. Even less involved in malaria transmission, the occurrence of ecological and environmental changes tending to a good adaptation of An. coluzzii could lead to a great risk for malaria transmission in time and space in human populations.
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El Hadji Amadou Niang, Lassana Konate, Ousmane Faye, Mawlouth Diallo, Ibrahima Dia. Vector bionomics and malaria transmission in an area of sympatry of An. arabiensis, An. coluzzii and An. gambiae. Acta Tropica, Elsevier, 2019, 189, pp.129-136. ⟨10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.10.005⟩. ⟨hal-02613659⟩



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