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Source–Receptor Relationships and Cluster Analysis of CO2, CH4, and CO Concentrations in West Africa: The Case of Lamto in Côte d’Ivoire

Abstract : The contribution in terms of long-range transport of CO 2 , CH 4 , and CO concentrations to measurements at Lamto (5 • 02 W-6 • 13 N) was analyzed for the 2014-2017 period using the FLEXPART model that calculates the retro-plumes of air masses arriving at the station. The identification of the source-receptor relationships was also studied with a clustering technique applied on those retro-plumes. This clustering technique enabled us to distinguish four categories of air mass transports arriving at Lamto site described as follows: oceanic and maritime origin (≈37% of the retro-plumes), continental origin (≈21%), and two hybrid clusters (≈42%). The results show that continental emission sources contribute significantly to the increases in concentrations of CO 2 , CH 4 , and CO and explain ≈40% of their variance. These emission sources are predominantly from north and northeast directions of the measurement point, and where densely populated and economically developed areas are located. In addition, the transport of air masses from these directions lead to the accumulation of CO 2 , CH 4 , and CO. Furthermore, the ratios ∆CO/∆CH 4 and ∆CO/∆CO 2 observed in the groups associated with Harmattan flows clearly show an influence of combustion processes on the continent. Thus, the grouping based on FLEXPART footprints shows an advantage compared to the use of simple trajectories for analyzing source-receptor relationships.
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Dro Touré Tiemoko, Fidèle Yoroba, Jean-Daniel Paris, Adama Diawara, Antoine Berchet, et al.. Source–Receptor Relationships and Cluster Analysis of CO2, CH4, and CO Concentrations in West Africa: The Case of Lamto in Côte d’Ivoire. Atmosphere, MDPI 2020, 11 (9), pp.903. ⟨10.3390/atmos11090903⟩. ⟨hal-02928785⟩

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