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Mineralogical reconstruction of Late Pleistocene -Holocene climate and environmental changes in southern wetlands of Lake Urmia

Abstract : To determine the effect of climate changes on current critical conditions of Lake Urmia, paleoclimate of southern wetlands of Lake Urmia was investigated based on clay mineralogy. Kani Barazan and Solduz wetlands on the southern margin of Lake Urmia and also the southern part of the lake have been briefly studied in this research. A total of 24 sedimentary cores were taken for sedimentology and mineralogy study from south to north of Lake Urmia. The clay mineralogy analysis were done by XRD method. The main minerals in the sediments include quartz (over 40%), calcite, feldspars, mica, dolomite and clay minerals. Chlorite and kaolinite were the main clay minerals in the southern coastal plains of Lake Urmia. Distribution of surface samples represents reduction of clay minerals in the sediments from the margin to the center of the basin. This indicate that the percentage of detrital sediments decreases and chemical sediments increase from the margin to the center. Increasing the distance from the edge of the wetland causes it to move away from the source of the sediments. The concentration of water salts in the central part of the basin increases. In the central part of the lake, due to greater depth and high salinity of water, chemical sediments have been predominant and in the margins of the lake, according to low salinity and the volume of clastic materials, this kind of sediments have been predominant. This is consistent with the changes in other clastic minerals (quartz) in the lake. The level of clay minerals increased from the surface to the depth of boreholes indicating a high water level and a more warm-wet paleoclimate. According to the changes in the type of clay minerals in the sediment sequence of the southern part of Lake Urmia, it seems that in the Late Pleistocene (20 cal ka BP) the weather was more humid than the current conditions and the volume of clastic material to the lake was higher.
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Razyeh Lak, Bita Mirzapour, Mohsen Aleali, Morteza Djamali, Reza Shahbazi. Mineralogical reconstruction of Late Pleistocene -Holocene climate and environmental changes in southern wetlands of Lake Urmia. Geopersia, College of Science, University of Tehran, Iran, 2021, 11 (1), pp.205-218. ⟨10.22059/GEOPE.2020.306217.648565⟩. ⟨hal-03265539⟩

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