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Sibling status, home birth, tattoos and stitches are risk factors for chronic hepatitis B virus infection in Senegalese children: A cross‐sectional survey

Abstract : Sub-Saharan Africa's hepatitis B virus (HBV) burden is primarily due to infection in infancy. However, data on chronic HBV infection prevalence and associated risk factors in children born post-HBV vaccination introduction are scarce. We estimated hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence and risk factors in Senegalese children born during the HBV vaccination era. In 2018-2019, a community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Senegal among children born between 2004 and 2015 (ie after the three-dose HBV vaccine series was introduced (2004) but before the birth dose's introduction (2016)). HBsAg-positive children were identified using dried blood spots. A standardized questionnaire collected socioeconomic information. Data were age-sex weighted and calibrated to be representative of children living in the study area. Risk factors associated with HBsAg positivity were identified using negative binomial regression. Among 1,327 children, 17 were HBsAg-positive (prevalence = 1.23% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.61-1.85)). Older age (adjusted incidence-rate ratio [aIRR] 1.31 per one-year increase, 95% CI 1.10-1.57), home vs healthcare facility delivery (aIRR 3.55, 95% CI 1.39-9.02), stitches (lifetime) (aIRR 4.79; 95% CI 1.84-12.39), tattoos (aIRR 8.97, 95% CI 1.01-79.11) and having an HBsAg-positive sibling with the same mother (aIRR 3.05, 95% CI 1.09-8.57) were all independently associated with HBsAg positivity. The low HBsAg prevalence highlights the success of the Senegalese HBV vaccination program. To further reduce HBV acquisition in children, high-risk groups, including pregnant women and siblings of HBsAg-positive individuals, must be screened. Vital HBV infection prevention measures include promoting delivery in healthcare facilities, and increasing awareness of prevention and control procedures.
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Submitted on : Monday, September 27, 2021 - 12:48:54 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, September 28, 2021 - 3:36:43 AM

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Lauren Périères, Camelia Protopopescu, Gora Lo, Fabienne Marcellin, El Hadji Ba, et al.. Sibling status, home birth, tattoos and stitches are risk factors for chronic hepatitis B virus infection in Senegalese children: A cross‐sectional survey. Journal of Viral Hepatitis, Wiley-Blackwell, In press, ⟨10.1111/jvh.13589⟩. ⟨hal-03355358⟩

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