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Brucella: Reservoirs and Niches in Animals and Humans

Abstract : Brucella is an intracellular bacterium that causes abortion, reproduction failure in livestock and leads to a debilitating flu-like illness with serious chronic complications if untreated in humans. As a successful intracellular pathogen, Brucella has developed strategies to avoid recognition by the immune system of the host and promote its survival and replication. In vivo, Brucellae reside mostly within phagocytes and other cells including trophoblasts, where they establish a preferred replicative niche inside the endoplasmic reticulum. This process is central as it gives Brucella the ability to maintain replicating-surviving cycles for long periods of time, even at low bacterial numbers, in its cellular niches. In this review, we propose that Brucella takes advantage of the environment provided by the cellular niches in which it resides to generate reservoirs and disseminate to other organs. We will discuss how the favored cellular niches for Brucella infection in the host give rise to anatomical reservoirs that may lead to chronic infections or persistence in asymptomatic subjects, and which may be considered as a threat for further contamination. A special emphasis will be put on bone marrow, lymph nodes, reproductive and for the first time adipose tissues, as well as wildlife reservoirs.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, October 12, 2021 - 4:25:58 PM
Last modification on : Friday, April 1, 2022 - 3:53:02 AM

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Gabriela González-Espinoza, Vilma Arce-Gorvel, Sylvie Mémet, Jean-Pierre Gorvel. Brucella: Reservoirs and Niches in Animals and Humans. Pathogens, MDPI, 2021, 10 (2), pp.186. ⟨10.3390/pathogens10020186⟩. ⟨hal-03375299⟩

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