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Leukocyte Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors in Regulating the Immune Response in Infectious Diseases: A Window of Opportunity to Pathogen Persistence and a Sound Target in Therapeutics

Abstract : Immunoregulatory receptors are essential for orchestrating an immune response as well as appropriate inflammation in infectious and non-communicable diseases. Among them, leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILRs) consist of activating and inhibitory receptors that play an important role in regulating immune responses modulating the course of disease progression. On the one hand, inhibitory LILRs constitute a safe-guard system that mitigates the inflammatory response, allowing a prompt return to immune homeostasis. On the other hand, because of their unique capacity to attenuate immune responses, pathogens use inhibitory LILRs to evade immune recognition, thus facilitating their persistence within the host. Conversely, the engagement of activating LILRs triggers immune responses and the production of inflammatory mediators to fight microbes. However, their heightened activation could lead to an exacerbated immune response and persistent inflammation with major consequences on disease outcome and autoimmune disorders. Here, we review the genetic organisation, structure and ligands of LILRs as well as their role in regulating the immune response and inflammation. We also discuss the LILR-based strategies that pathogens use to evade immune responses. A better understanding of the contribution of LILRs to host–pathogen interactions is essential to define appropriate treatments to counteract the severity and/or persistence of pathogens in acute and chronic infectious diseases lacking efficient treatments.
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Submitted on : Friday, November 19, 2021 - 11:54:06 AM
Last modification on : Monday, November 22, 2021 - 3:56:23 PM

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Florence Abdallah, Sixtine Coindre, Margaux Gardet, Florian Meurisse, Abderrahim Naji, et al.. Leukocyte Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors in Regulating the Immune Response in Infectious Diseases: A Window of Opportunity to Pathogen Persistence and a Sound Target in Therapeutics. Frontiers in Immunology, Frontiers, 2021, 12, ⟨10.3389/fimmu.2021.717998⟩. ⟨hal-03436330⟩

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