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Journal Articles Cahiers d'Etudes Italiennes Year : 2016

Migrations in Franco-Italian Relationships in the Fifties and Sixties

La question migratoire dans les relations franco-italiennes dans les années 1950-1960

Le migrazioni nelle relazioni franco-italiane negli anni 1950 e 1960

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Abstract

Emigration from Italy to France increased after the Second World War, before its decrease from the beginning of the 1960s. The issue of emigration plays a key role in the history of Franco-Italian relations. Both governments wished to regulate the stream of migrants. While France relied on transalpine migration for its labor force, for Italy migration provided a way of coping with unemployment. The agreement of March 1951 tries to find a compromise between the economic need for labor on the French side, and the demand, on the Italian side, for a social welfare system for the immigrants. The conditions of residence (such as housing and social security) were a major point of discussion, within the framework of the European community rules imposed by the Treaty of Rome. The debates reveal a different approach to migration, between the French attempt to “assimilate” and the Italian concern to maintain influence on their emigrants.
Après la Seconde Guerre mondiale l’émigration italienne vers la France connaît une reprise avant de décroitre à partir des années 1960. La question migratoire occupe dans les relations franco-italiennes une place importante. Les deux gouvernements entendent organiser les flux. La France a besoin de la main-d’œuvre transalpine tandis que pour l’Italie l’émigration est conçue comme une nécessité pour résorber le chômage. L’accord de mars 1951 cherche à établir un compromis entre, du côté français, les impératifs économiques de recrutement, du côté italien, l’établissement d’une protection sociale équitable. Les conditions de séjour (logement et prestations sociales) sont au centre de discussions soumises aux contraintes communautaires qu’impose l’application du traité de Rome. Les échanges révèlent des approches différenciées de la migration entre l’assimilationnisme français et l’interventionnisme italien en vue de maintenir une tutelle sur les migrants.
Dopo la Seconda guerra mondiale l’emigrazione italiana verso la Francia conosce una ripresa prima di decrescere a partire dagli anni 1960. Le questioni migratorie occupano uno spazio rilevante nelle relazioni bilaterali italo-francesi. Entrambi i governi vogliono organizzare i flussi. La Francia ha bisogno di lavoratori italiani mentre per l’Italia l’emigrazione è una necessità per riassorbire la disoccupazione. L’accordo del marzo 1951 cerca di stabilire un compromesso tra gli imperativi economici di reclutamento dei francesi e la richiesta di una protezione sociale equa da parte italiana. Le condizioni di soggiorno (alloggio e sistema di protezione sociale), sono al centro di discussioni sottomesse alle costrizioni comunitarie che impongono l’applicazione del trattato di Roma. Gli scambi rivelano approcci differenziati alla migrazione, tra l’‘assimilationnisme’ francese e l’interventismo italiano, mirante a mantenere una tutela sugli emigranti.

Dates and versions

hal-03578318 , version 1 (17-02-2022)

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Stéphane Mourlane. Migrations in Franco-Italian Relationships in the Fifties and Sixties. Cahiers d'Etudes Italiennes, 2016, 22, pp.159-173. ⟨10.4000/cei.2938⟩. ⟨hal-03578318⟩
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