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Thermographic reconstruction of heat load on the first wall of Wendelstein 7-X due to ECRH shine-through power

Abstract : Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) is a powerful and flexible plasma heating technique that serves as the main heater at Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) and will be used at ITER for start-up, heating, current drive and mitigation of plasma instabilities. In the case of poor or degraded microwave absorption, which is expected in the O2-mode heating scenario, a significant part of the beam directly hits the wall, leading to local overheating and potential damage. The ECRH shine-through power is mostly reflected onto the targets; only a small fraction is really absorbed through ohmic losses (typically 3% for graphite at 140 GHz). The ohmic losses do not only depend on the material properties and the frequency, but also on the polarization of the wave and the angle of incidence. This paper presents a thermographic analysis of ECRH experiments at W7-X, including heat load and temperature simulations of the first wall that include ECRH shine through. Two O-mode ECRH experiments with both a high temperature rise of the first wall and different angles of beam incidence on the wall’s surface are depicted. One experiment has 775 kW of power modulation (5 Hz) with mixed polarization (45% O-mode, 55% X-mode) and an EC beam angle almost normal to the first wall. The second has 550 kW of steady EC power with O-mode polarization, a shallow beam angle and increased power absorption by the material. It is shown that infrared thermography is a useful tool for measuring shine-through power and protecting wall components.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, April 27, 2022 - 10:52:40 AM
Last modification on : Thursday, April 28, 2022 - 3:35:50 AM

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y. Corre, J. Gaspar, S. Marsen, D. Moseev, T. Stange, et al.. Thermographic reconstruction of heat load on the first wall of Wendelstein 7-X due to ECRH shine-through power. Nuclear Fusion, IOP Publishing, 2021, 61 (6), pp.066002. ⟨10.1088/1741-4326/abebea⟩. ⟨hal-03652892⟩

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