The Pathophysiology of Long COVID throughout the Renin-Angiotensin System - Archive ouverte HAL Access content directly
Journal Articles Molecules Year : 2022

The Pathophysiology of Long COVID throughout the Renin-Angiotensin System

Shaymaa Khazaal
  • Function : Author
Julien Harb
  • Function : Author
Mohamad Rima
Cédric Annweiler
  • Function : Author
Yingliang Wu
  • Function : Author
Zhijian Cao
  • Function : Author
Ziad Abi Khattar
Christian Legros
Hervé Kovacic
Ziad Fajloun
Jean-Marc Sabatier


COVID-19 has expanded across the world since its discovery in Wuhan (China) and has had a significant impact on people’s lives and health. Long COVID is a term coined by the World Health Organization (WHO) to describe a variety of persistent symptoms after acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. Long COVID has been demonstrated to affect various SARS-CoV-2-infected persons, independently of the acute disease severity. The symptoms of long COVID, like acute COVID-19, consist in the set of damage to various organs and systems such as the respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological, endocrine, urinary, and immune systems. Fatigue, dyspnea, cardiac abnormalities, cognitive and attention impairments, sleep disturbances, post-traumatic stress disorder, muscle pain, concentration problems, and headache were all reported as symptoms of long COVID. At the molecular level, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is heavily involved in the pathogenesis of this illness, much as it is in the acute phase of the viral infection. In this review, we summarize the impact of long COVID on several organs and tissues, with a special focus on the significance of the RAS in the disease pathogenesis. Long COVID risk factors and potential therapy approaches are also explored.

Dates and versions

hal-03982146 , version 1 (10-02-2023)



Shaymaa Khazaal, Julien Harb, Mohamad Rima, Cédric Annweiler, Yingliang Wu, et al.. The Pathophysiology of Long COVID throughout the Renin-Angiotensin System. Molecules, 2022, 27 (9), pp.2903. ⟨10.3390/molecules27092903⟩. ⟨hal-03982146⟩
2 View
0 Download



Gmail Facebook Twitter LinkedIn More