. Aix-marseille-univ, . Ird, . Inserm, . Sesstim, and F. Marseille, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Santé Publique, Rennes, France. 3 UMR VITROME, Campus International IRD-UCAD de l'IRD, Dakar, Sénégal. 4 Institut de Recherche en Santé

D. Diamniadio, S. Ap-hp, H. Bichat, ;. , T. Center--ogobara et al., Direction des Systèmes d'Information en santé, Ministère de la santé, CESPA), issue.8

M. Marseille and F. , Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, p.12

A. Aix-marseille-univ, . Inserm, S. Ird, H. Timone, . Biostic et al., , p.25, 2019.

, World Health Organization. World malaria report, 2018.

. Pnlp-|-programme-national-de-lutte-contre-le-paludisme, , 2019.

A. B. Nourein, M. A. Abass, A. Nugud, I. E. Hassan, R. W. Snow et al., Identifying residual foci of plasmodium falciparum infections for malaria elimination: the urban context of Khartoum, Sudan PLOS ONE, vol.6, 2011.

J. Landier, S. Rebaudet, R. Piarroux, and J. Gaudart, Spatiotemporal analysis of malaria for new sustainable control strategies, BMC Med, vol.16, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02148491

T. Bousema, J. T. Griffin, R. W. Sauerwein, D. L. Smith, T. S. Churcher et al., Hitting hotspots: spatial targeting of malaria for control and elimination, PLoS Med, vol.9, p.1001165, 2012.

O. Sy, E. Niang, M. Ndiaye, L. Konaté, A. Diallo et al., Entomological impact of indoor residual spraying with pirimiphos-methyl: a pilot study in an area of low malaria transmission in Senegal, Malar J, vol.17, p.64, 2018.

P. Bejon, T. N. Williams, C. Nyundo, S. I. Hay, D. Benz et al., A microepidemiological analysis of febrile malaria in coastal Kenya showing hotspots within hotspots, eLife, vol.3, p.2130, 2014.

P. Bejon, T. N. Williams, A. Liljander, A. M. Noor, J. Wambua et al., Stable and unstable malaria hotspots in longitudinal cohort studies in Kenya, PLoS Med, vol.7, 2010.

T. Bousema, C. Drakeley, S. Gesase, R. Hashim, S. Magesa et al., Identification of hot spots of malaria transmission for targeted malaria control, J Infect Dis, vol.201, pp.1764-74, 2010.

T. T. Caughlin, A. J. Tatem, N. W. Ruktanonchai, P. Deleenheer, E. Zu-erbach-schoenberg et al., Identifying Malaria Transmission Foci for Elimination Using Human Mobility Data, 2016.

L. Durnez, M. Pareyn, V. Mean, S. Kim, N. Khim et al., Identification and characterization of areas of high and low risk for asymptomatic malaria infections at sub-village level in Ratanakiri, Cambodia. Malaria J, vol.17, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02559268

T. Bousema, J. Stevenson, A. Baidjoe, G. Stresman, J. T. Griffin et al., The impact of hotspot-targeted interventions on malaria transmission: study protocol for a cluster-randomized controlled trial, Trials, vol.14, p.36, 2013.

M. S. Sissoko, L. L. Van-den-hoogen, R. W. Sauerwein, P. Knight, T. Bousema et al., Spatial patterns of plasmodium falciparum clinical incidence, asymptomatic parasite carriage and Anopheles density in two villages in Mali, Am J Trop Med Hygiene, vol.93, pp.790-797, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01307140

M. Ndiath, B. Faye, B. Cisse, J. L. Ndiaye, J. F. Gomis et al., Identifying malaria hotspots in Keur Soce health and demographic surveillance site in context of low transmission, Malar J, vol.13, p.453, 2014.

D. Coulibaly, M. A. Travassos, Y. Tolo, M. B. Laurens, A. K. Kone et al., Spatio-temporal dynamics of asymptomatic malaria: bridging the gap between annual malaria resurgences in a Sahelian environment, Am J Trop Med Hygiene, vol.97, pp.1761-1770, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ird-01630569

B. Cissé, E. H. Ba, C. Sokhna, J. L. Ndiaye, J. F. Gomis et al., Effectiveness of seasonal malaria chemoprevention in children under ten years of age in Senegal: a stepped-wedge cluster-randomised trial, PLoS Med, vol.13, p.1002175, 2016.

N. Martiny, N. Dessay, P. Yaka, O. Toure, B. Sultan et al., Le climat, un facteur de risque pour la santé en Afrique de l'Ouest, La Météorologie, 2012.

A. Spécial, , pp.73-82

J. S. Kimuyu, N. J. Muthama, and S. M. Musyoka, Ecological Niche Modeling For Spatial-Temporal Quantification Of The Changing Dynamics Of Malaria Vector Distribution In Kenya Under Climate Change Forcing, 2017.

, World Health Organization, Global Malaria Programme, World Health Organization. A framework for malaria elimination, 2017.

P. Mogeni, I. Omedo, C. Nyundo, A. Kamau, A. Noor et al., Effect of transmission intensity on hotspots and micro-epidemiology of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, BMC Med, vol.15, 2017.

A. Platt, A. A. Obala, C. Macintyre, B. Otsyula, and W. Meara, Dynamic malaria hotspots in an open cohort in western Kenya, Sci Rep, vol.8, p.647, 2018.

H. S. Mckay, J. Lessler, S. M. Moore, and A. S. Azman, What is a hotspot anyway?, Am J Trop Med Hygiene, vol.96, pp.1270-1273, 2017.

C. Sokhna, B. Cissé, E. H. Bâ, P. Milligan, R. Hallett et al., A trial of the efficacy, Safety and Impact on Drug Resistance of Four Drug Regimens for Seasonal Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Malaria in Senegalese Children, PLOS ONE, vol.3, p.1471, 2008.

E. Bâ, C. Pitt, Y. Dial, S. L. Faye, M. Cairns et al., Implementation, coverage and equity of large-scale door-to-door delivery of seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) to children under 10 in Senegal, Sci Rep, vol.8, 2018.

P. Milligan, Effectiveness of Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention in children under 10 years of age in Senegal: a stepped-wedge cluster-randomized trial

J. Townshend, MODIS enhanced land cover and land cover change principal investigator, 1999.

, TRMM (TMPA-RT) Near Real-Time Precipitation L3 1 day 0.25 degree x 0.25 degree V7, Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC), 2016.

R. Killick, P. Fearnhead, and I. A. Eckley, Optimal detection of changepoints with a linear computational cost, J Am Stat Assoc, vol.107, pp.1590-1598, 2012.

R. Killick and I. Eckley, Changepoint: an R package for changepoint analysis, J Stat Softw, vol.58, pp.1-19, 2014.

N. R. Zhang and D. O. Siegmund, A modified bayes information criterion with applications to the analysis of comparative genomic hybridization data, Biometrics, vol.63, pp.22-32, 2007.

M. Kulldorff, A spatial scan statistic, Communications in Statistics Theory Methods, vol.26, pp.1481-96, 1997.

S. N. Wood, Generalized additive models: an introduction with R, 2017.

, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard space flight center, GADM. GADM maps and data, vol.34, 2020.

M. S. Sissoko, K. Sissoko, B. Kamate, Y. Samake, S. Goita et al., Temporal dynamic of malaria in a suburban area along the Niger River, Malar J, vol.16, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01629835

B. Ouedraogo, Y. Inoue, A. Kambiré, K. Sallah, S. Dieng et al., Spatiotemporal dynamic of malaria in Ouagadougou, pp.2011-2015
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01828600

, Malar J, vol.17, 2018.

J. Gaudart, B. Poudiougou, A. Dicko, S. Ranque, O. Toure et al., Spacetime clustering of childhood malaria at the household level: a dynamic cohort in a Mali village, BMC Public Health, vol.6, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00122093

K. Sallah, R. Giorgi, E. H. Ba, M. Piarroux, R. Piarroux et al., Targeting hotspots to reduce transmission of malaria in Senegal: modeling of the effects of human mobility, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01876568

J. Landier, D. M. Parker, A. M. Thu, K. M. Lwin, G. Delmas et al., Effect of generalised access to early diagnosis and treatment and targeted mass drug administration on plasmodium falciparum malaria in eastern Myanmar: an observational study of a regional elimination programme, Lancet, p.0, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-02080091

J. Gaudart, N. Graffeo, D. Coulibaly, G. Barbet, S. Rebaudet et al., SPODT : An R Package to Perform Spatial Partitioning, J Stat Software, vol.63, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01208245

A. Guttmann, X. Li, J. Gaudart, Y. Gérard, J. Demongeot et al., Spatial heterogeneity of type I error for local cluster detection tests, Int J Health Geogr, vol.13, p.15, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00998280

L. E. Christiansen, J. S. Andersen, H. C. Wegener, and H. Madsen, Spatial scan statistics using elliptic windows, J Agric Biol Environ Stat, vol.11, pp.411-435, 2006.

A. Guttmann, L. Ouchchane, X. Li, I. Perthus, J. Gaudart et al., Performance map of a cluster detection test using extended power, Int J Health Geogr, vol.12, p.47, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00903889

A. Guttmann, X. Li, F. Feschet, J. Gaudart, J. Demongeot et al., Cluster detection tests in spatial epidemiology: a global Indicator for performance assessment, PLoS One, vol.10, p.130594, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02102324

, Malaria Operational Plan. Senegal -Malaria Operational Plan FY, 2018.

T. Rouamba, S. Nakanabo-diallo, K. Derra, E. Rouamba, A. Kazienga et al., Socioeconomic and environmental factors associated with malaria hotspots in the Nanoro demographic surveillance area, BMC Public Health, vol.19, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02148446

P. Mogeni, T. N. Williams, I. Omedo, D. Kimani, J. M. Ngoi et al., Detecting malaria hotspots: a comparison of rapid diagnostic test, microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction, J Infect Dis, 2017.

A. M. Adeola, J. O. Botai, H. Rautenbach, O. M. Adisa, K. P. Ncongwane et al., Climatic variables and malaria morbidity in Mutale local municipality, South Africa: a 19-year data analysis, Int J Environ Res Public Health, vol.14, 2017.

T. Awine, K. Malm, N. Y. Peprah, and S. P. Silal, Spatio-temporal heterogeneity of malaria morbidity in Ghana: analysis of routine health facility data, PLoS One, vol.13, p.191707, 2018.

L. Lu, H. Lin, L. Tian, Y. W. Sun, J. Liu et al., Time series analysis of dengue fever and weather in Guangzhou, China BMC Public Health, vol.9, p.395, 2009.

M. H. Craig, R. W. Snow, and D. Le-sueur, A climate-based distribution model of malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, Parasitol Today, vol.15, pp.105-116, 1999.

C. Thierfelder and P. C. Wall, Effects of conservation agriculture techniques on infiltration and soil water content in Zambia and Zimbabwe, Soil Tillage Res, vol.105, pp.217-244, 2009.

F. Girond, L. Randrianasolo, L. Randriamampionona, F. Rakotomanana, M. Randrianarivelojosia et al., Analysing trends and forecasting malaria epidemics in Madagascar using a sentinel surveillance network: a web-based application, Malar J, vol.16, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-01647630

M. Santos-vega, M. J. Bouma, V. Kohli, and M. Pascual, Population density, Climate Variables and Poverty Synergistically Structure Spatial Risk in Urban Malaria in India, PLOS Neglected Trop Dis, vol.10, p.5155, 2016.

B. Kreuels, R. Kobbe, S. Adjei, C. Kreuzberg, C. Von-reden et al., Spatial variation of malaria incidence in young children from a geographically homogeneous area with high Endemicity, J Infect Dis, vol.197, pp.85-93, 2008.

K. C. Ernst, S. O. Adoka, D. O. Kowuor, M. L. Wilson, and C. C. John, Malaria hotspot areas in a highland Kenya site are consistent in epidemic and non-epidemic years and are associated with ecological factors, Malaria J, vol.5, p.78, 2006.

J. Yukich, A. Bennett, R. Yukich, L. Stuck, B. Hamainza et al., Estimation of malaria parasite reservoir coverage using reactive case detection and active community fever screening from census data with rapid diagnostic tests in southern Zambia: a re-sampling approach, Malar J, vol.16, 2017.

B. P. Gonçalves, M. C. Kapulu, P. Sawa, W. M. Guelbéogo, A. B. Tiono et al., Examining the human infectious reservoir for plasmodium falciparum malaria in areas of differing transmission intensity, Nat Commun, vol.8, 2017.

J. Ndiaye, I. Diallo, Y. Ndiaye, E. Kouevidjin, I. Aw et al., Evaluation of two strategies for community-based safety monitoring during seasonal malaria chemoprevention campaigns in Senegal, compared with the National Spontaneous Reporting System, Pharmaceutical Med, vol.32, pp.189-200, 2018.

H. Alout, B. J. Krajacich, J. I. Meyers, N. D. Grubaugh, D. E. Brackney et al., Evaluation of ivermectin mass drug administration for malaria transmission control across different west African environments, Malar J, vol.13, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02631695

A. N. Wotodjo, S. Doucoure, J. Gaudart, N. Diagne, F. D. Sarr et al., Malaria in Dielmo, a Senegal village: is its elimination possible after seven years of implementation of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets? PLoS One, vol.12, p.179528, 2017.

K. C. Kobylinski, M. Sylla, P. L. Chapman, M. D. Sarr, and B. D. Foy, Ivermectin mass drug Administration to humans disrupts malaria parasite transmission in Senegalese villages, Am J Trop Med Hyg, vol.85, pp.3-5, 2011.