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Mécanismes de prise de décision dans des environnements conflictuels: Approches comportementales,computationnelles et électrophysiologiques

Abstract : A perceptual decision is a deliberative process that aims to choose a categorical proposition or course of action from a set of alternatives on the basis of available sensory information Since the late '60s, perceptual decision-making has been modeled by sequential sampling mechanisms (e.g., drift diffusion model, ballistic accumulator , etc.). According to these models, sensory information is accumulated to some threshold level, from where the decision terminates in a choice and the response is executed. The recent discovery of neural correlates of these functional models in the non-human primate brain has reinforced their validity. Neurophysiological studies of sensory evidence accumulation in humans are relatively scarce. Moreover, perceptual decision-making research has focused on simple and feebly ecological tasks contexts. Such tendency has recently been reversed by the release of new sequential sampling models able to capture behavioral performance in tasks representative of everyday life experiences, requiring filtering of irrelevant information. The present work tests this new generation of models through behavioral (experiment 1) and electrophysiological studies (experiments 2 and 3) in humans. The first experiment aimed to determine whether chronometric laws traditionally observed in simple choice tasks remain valid in more ecological experimental contexts, and whether new formal decision-making models predict these laws. The second experiment used covert electromyographic response activation to test latent assumptions of the models at the single trial level. The last experiment extended this methodology with a current source density analysis of electroencephalographic signals over the motor cortices. The three studies validate general assumptions of new formal decision-making models. However, they demonstrate some architectural problems, particularly on the links between evidence accumulation and sensorimotor control. We propose some theoretical and computational extensions able to explain our empirical findings. This work thus contributes to a nascent field, model-based cognitive neuroscience, defined by a reciprocal relationship between cognitive neuroscience and behavioral mathematical modeling.
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https://hal-amu.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01446701
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Submitted on : Monday, February 20, 2017 - 10:27:09 AM
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Mathieu Servant. Mécanismes de prise de décision dans des environnements conflictuels: Approches comportementales,computationnelles et électrophysiologiques. Neurosciences. Aix Marseille Université, 2015. Français. ⟨tel-01446701⟩

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