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Apport d’antennes miniatures en matériau supraconducteur en Imagerie par Résonance Magnétique du ciblage moléculaire et cellulaire chez le petit animal

Abstract : Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) on small animal models is increasingly needed in biomedical research to develop new diagnostic means. However this technique suffers from a lack of specificity which is still to be improved to detect early degenerative diseases such as cancer. Molecular imaging using targeted Contrast Agents (CA) is a promising tool to reach this goal. We present hereby a cross-disciplinary work with this purpose. A first issue of this work deals with contrast physical principles involved in MRI. A theoretical study allows evidencing the presence of an optimal field strength (~1-1.5 T) for paramagnetic targeted CA detection. This is validated experimentally. Highly sensitive detection coils made of superconductive material are presented and fully implemented in a clinical 1.5 T MRI system. An original characterization method of such coils is developed to manage their performances and in order to be used as a tool for new coil designs. This method accounts for the nonlinear behavior of the material. Two in vivo experimental studies are presented in the last part of this work. They were performed on mouse-implanted human tumor models using a new generation of CA developed by Guerbet, a firm involved in this work. It was not possible to validate undoubtedly the specificity of this CA from these first results. However the methodological improvements of this work will allow rationalizing imaging protocols in the near future, and will yield significant progress in this field of research.
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Olivier M. Girard. Apport d’antennes miniatures en matériau supraconducteur en Imagerie par Résonance Magnétique du ciblage moléculaire et cellulaire chez le petit animal. Physique [physics]. Université Paris-Sud 11, 2008. Français. ⟨NNT : 2008PA112037⟩. ⟨tel-02370858⟩

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