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Dégradation du couvert forestier liée à la culture du palmier à huile par télédétection en milieu tropical humide : application au bassin du Congo

Abstract : The objective of this doctoral research is to study the degradation of forest cover due to the industrial cultivation of oil palm by remote sensing in the Congo Basin, particularly the SOCAPALM-Kienké palm grove in Cameroon. To characterize degradation, in order to highlight the systemic link between forest cover degradation and changes in palm grove and landscape structure, the functional approach to landscape ecology was combined with the spatial approach to remote sensing. To achieve this objective, spectral indicators, statistical indicators, structural landscape ecology indicators and remote sensing morphological indicators were analyzed. Spectral indicators from Landsat data (MSS, TM, ETM+) and Sentinel-2A enabled us to map the spatial dynamics of land use to study changes in palm groves, forest cover and other land use components in the study area between 1973 and 2017. The unsupervised classification method for iterative data analysis (ISODATA) and the supervised spatial segmentation classification method were used for the Landsat 1-MSS image (1973) and for the Landsat 4-TM, Landsat 7-ETM+ and Sentinel-2A images from 1988-2017 respectively. The maps obtained are of good accuracy, with Kappa indices between[0.61-0.8] and[0.81-1]. From these maps, statistical indicators have enabled us to characterize the spatial and temporal dynamics of the Kienké palm grove, and to highlight the spatial expression of forest cover degradation from 1973 to 2017. It is reflected in the decrease in forest cover (average annual rates ranging from -1% to -1.47%), which is mainly linked to the expansion of the palm grove and urban structures. Structural indicators of landscape ecology and remote sensing morphology (directional filters and PCAs) allowed us to extract the morphology of the Kienké elaicultural landscape and explain the observed spatial changes. As a result, the expansion of the palm grove is leading to the emergence of new urban structures in and around the grove. These structures contribute to the decline of forest cover, which corresponds to a number of transformations in the forest ecosystem, the dominant process of which is fragmentation.
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Submitted on : Friday, December 6, 2019 - 9:59:17 AM
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Prune Christobelle Komba Mayossa. Dégradation du couvert forestier liée à la culture du palmier à huile par télédétection en milieu tropical humide : application au bassin du Congo. Biodiversité et Ecologie. Aix-Marseille Université, 2019. Français. ⟨tel-02396595⟩

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