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Caractérisation moléculaire de baumes de momies humaines d'Egypte ancienne

Abstract : This PhD work is part of HELYCOM (Human Egyptian LYon COnfluences Mummies) scientificproject as part of Archimedes Labex, led by an interdisciplinary research team. The presentobjective is to characterize and identify the nature of chemical elements present in mummificationbalms from 10 whole mummies and 33 mummies heads from ancient Egypt. The individuals comefrom the Egyptian collection of the Musée des Confluences in Lyon and they have never beenstudied before.Given the wide variety of natural substances that can be used in the formulation of balms,different analytical techniques, each providing complementary information, were used such asFourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Gas Chromatography Coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GCMS).The infrared spectroscopy study was carried out on 61 mummy balm samples to characterize thedifferent chemical families present. Given the large number of samples studied, statistical analyseswere carried out by Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (AHC) in order to group them intoclusters and thus to compare them with each other in terms of their chemical composition. Priorto the chromatographic analyses, an extraction step was developed using a conventional solvent.In addition, in order to perform molecular identification, the development of a novel solid phaseextraction protocol has been successfully developed and optimized. The whole of this study haspermitted to characterize different balm compositions associated with different formulations andstates of alteration and/or degradation. Plant oil, animal fat, beeswax, di- and triterpenic resins,bitumen, correspond to all the identified substances. An interpretation of the alteration anddegradation processes of diterpenic molecules was carried out in Principal Component Analysis(PCA).
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Elodie Mezzatesta. Caractérisation moléculaire de baumes de momies humaines d'Egypte ancienne. Autre. Université d'Avignon, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019AVIG0275⟩. ⟨tel-02883864⟩

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