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Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors, a risk factor for bullous pemphigoid: Retrospective multicenter case-control study from France and Switzerland

Abstract : Background: Case reports have suggested an association between dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4is) and development of bullous pemphigoid (BP). Objective: To evaluate the association between DPP4i treatment and development of BP. Methods: We conducted a retrospective 1:2 case-control study, comparing case patients with diabetes and BP with age- and sex-matched control patients with diabetes issued from Swiss (Bern) and French (Marseille) dermatologic departments from January 1, 2014, to July 31, 2016. Results: We collected 61 case patients with diabetes and BP and 122 controls. DPP4is were associated with an increased risk for development of BP (adjusted odds ratio, 2.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-5.85; P = .02), with vildagliptin showing the highest adjusted odds ratio (3.57 [95% confidence interval, 1.07-11.84; P = .04]). Stratified analysis showed a stronger association in males and patients age 80 years or older. DPP4i withdrawal and the initiation of first-line treatments led to clinical remission in 95% of cases. Limitations: This was a retrospective study in tertiary referral hospitals. We focused the analysis on DPP4i intake, without analyzing the potential isolated effect of metformin. Conclusions: DPP4is, especially vildagliptin, are associated with an increased risk for development of BP. Their use needs to be carefully evaluated, particularly in high-risk patients, such as males and those age 80 years or older.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, April 10, 2018 - 11:44:35 AM
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Michael Benzaquen, Luca Borradori, Philippe Berbis, Simone Cazzaniga, Rene Valero, et al.. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors, a risk factor for bullous pemphigoid: Retrospective multicenter case-control study from France and Switzerland. Journal of The American Academy of Dermatology, Elsevier, In press, 78 (6), pp.1090 - 1096. ⟨10.1016/j.jaad.2017.12.038⟩. ⟨hal-01757606⟩

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