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Retrospective study of hypersensitivity reactions to chemotherapeutic agents in a thoracic oncology service

Abstract : What is known and objective: With the increasing use of cancer chemotherapy agents, hypersensitivity reactions are commonly encountered. The allergic clinical symptoms are variable and unpredictable. The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of hypersensitivity reactions and to assess the value of skin tests for platinum salts and pemetrexed in the treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancers or malignant pleural mesothelioma. Methods: A single-centre retrospective study was performed for 2 years. Patients treated with the drugs of interest for an advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancers or malignant pleural mesothelioma and who experienced hypersensitivity reactions symptoms were eligible for this study. Clinical symptoms of hypersensitivity reactions, population characteristics and administered chemotherapy regimens were identified. Results: The hypersensitivity reactions frequency was rare (1.2%) and concerned 17 patient s in our study. Typical clinical features of immediate hypersensitivity reactions associated with treatment were observed for nine patients (anaphylactic reactions for three cases, angioedema and hypotension associated with asthenia and heat in one case, respectively, and other cutaneous symptoms in the remaining four cases). Skin tests were positive in three patients, but only for platinum salts. The outcome after reintroduction of a negatively tested platinum salt allowed us to calculate a negative predictive value for platinum salt skin tests of 100%. For pemetrexed, skin tests were negative for all patients. What is new and conclusion: Skin tests could be used to diagnose hypersensitivity reactions with platinum salts or to evaluate the possibility of cross-reactions between two platinum salts. A negative skin test may predict with reasonable reliability the absence of future hypersensitivity reactions in case of reintroduction of drug infusion. Because the IgE-mediated mechani sm has never been demonstrated for pemetrexed, skin tests are not valid and have no diagnostic value for this molecule. Because hypersensitivity reactions are potentially fatal adverse events, we recommend that patients who experience a hypersensitivity reactions onset should be monitored closely and clinicians must be aware of hypersensitivity reaction signs.
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Submitted on : Saturday, April 6, 2019 - 5:17:36 PM
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H. Capelle, C. Tummino, L. Greillier, M. Gouitaa, J. Birnbaum, et al.. Retrospective study of hypersensitivity reactions to chemotherapeutic agents in a thoracic oncology service. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 2018, 43 (3), pp.320--326. ⟨10.1111/jcpt.12645⟩. ⟨hal-02091901⟩



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