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Specific clones of Trichomonas tenax are associated with periodontitis

Abstract : Trichomonas tenax, an anaerobic protist difficult to cultivate with an unreliable molecular identification, has been suspected of involvement in periodontitis, a multifactorial inflamma-tory dental disease affecting the soft tissue and bone of periodontium. A cohort of 106 peri-odontitis patients classified by stages of severity and 85 healthy adult control patients was constituted. An efficient culture protocol, a new identification tool by real-time qPCR of T. tenax and a Multi-Locus Sequence Typing system (MLST) based on T. tenax NIH4 reference strain were created. Fifty-three strains of Trichomonas sp. were obtained from peri-odontal samples. 37/106 (34.90%) T. tenax from patients with periodontitis and 16/85 (18.80%˚) T. tenax from control patients were detected by culture (p = 0.018). Sixty of the 191 samples were tested positive for T. tenax by qPCR, 24/85 (28%) controls and 36/106 (34%) periodontitis patients (p = 0.089). By combining both results, 45/106 (42.5%) patients were positive by culture and/or PCR, as compared to 24/85 (28.2%) controls (p = 0.042). A link was established between the carriage in patients of Trichomonas tenax and the severity of the disease. Genotyping demonstrates the presence of strain diversity with three major different clusters and a relation between disease strains and the periodontitis severity (p<0.05). More frequently detected in periodontal cases, T. tenax is likely to be related to the onset or/and evolution of periodontal diseases.
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Sarah Benabdelkader, Julien Andreani, Alexis Gillet, Elodie Terrer, Marion Pignoly, et al.. Specific clones of Trichomonas tenax are associated with periodontitis. PLoS ONE, Public Library of Science, 2019, 14 (3), pp.e0213338. ⟨10.1371/journal.pone.0213338⟩. ⟨hal-02262584⟩

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