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Study of Human Gastrointestinal Microbiota by Culturomics in Africa.

Abstract : The interest in studying gut microbiota has been rekindled with the advent of molecular techniques, in particular, metagenomics. Culturomics (high throughput microbial culture with identification of the colonies by Maldi-TOF) has demonstrated its complementarity with metagenomics for comprehensive study of the microbiota. The main metagenomic studies have revealed an increase in biodiversity, with in particular an increase of Spirochaetes and Prevotella in subjects of African origin compared with Western subjects. Studies on malnutrition have shown a reduction of all bacteria and in particular of anaerobic bacteria and methanogenic archaea. Of the 1,162 bacteria isolated by culturomics studies, 476 were isolated only from non-African samples, 445 were isolated in African and non-African groups, and 241 bacteria were isolated from samples of African origin including 68 new species. Further studies of African microbiota by culturomics and metagenomics will make it possible to assess whether some bacteria have particular specificities and if these might play a role in certain pathologies such as malnutrition.
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S. Traoré, M. Bilen, F. Cadoret, S. Khelaifia, M Million, et al.. Study of Human Gastrointestinal Microbiota by Culturomics in Africa.. Médecine et santé tropicales , John Libbey Eurotext, 2019, 29 (4), pp.366-370. ⟨10.1684/mst.2019.0943⟩. ⟨hal-02446247⟩



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