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Journal Articles Energies Year : 2022

Potential Use of Constructed Wetland Systems for Rural Sanitation and Wastewater Reuse in Agriculture in the Moroccan Context

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Abstract

Located in a semi-arid to arid region, Morocco is confronting increasing water scarcity challenges. In the circular economy paradigm, the reuse of treated wastewater in agriculture is currently considered a possible solution to mitigate water shortage and pollution problems. In recent years, Morocco has made significative progress in urban wastewater treatment under the National Wastewater Program (PNA). However, rural sanitation has undergone significant delays. Therefore, an alternative technology for wastewater treatment and reuse in rural areas is investigated in this review, considering the region’s economic, social, and regulatory characteristics. Constructed wetlands (CWs) are a simple, sustainable, and cost-effective technology that has yet to be fully explored in Morocco. CWs, indeed, appear to be suitable for the treatment and reuse of wastewater in remote rural areas if they can produce effluent that meets the standards of agricultural irrigation. In this review, 29 studies covering 16 countries and different types of wastewater were collected and studied to assess the treatment efficiency of different types of CWs under different design and operational parameters, as well as their potential application in agricultural reuse. The results demonstrated that the removal efficiency of conventional contamination such as organic matter and suspended solids is generally high. CWs also demonstrated a remarkable capacity to remove heavy metals and emerging contaminants such as pharmaceuticals, care products, etc. The removal of microbial contamination, on the other hand, is challenging, and does not satisfy the standards all the time. However, it can be improved using hybrid constructed wetlands or by adding polishing treatment. In addition, several studies reported that CWs managed to produce effluent that met the requirements of wastewater reuse in agriculture of different countries or organisations including Morocco.
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Dates and versions

hal-03528220 , version 1 (17-01-2022)

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Attribution - CC BY 4.0

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Meryem Hdidou, Mohamed Chaker Necibi, Jérôme Labille, Souad El Hajjaji, Driss Dhiba, et al.. Potential Use of Constructed Wetland Systems for Rural Sanitation and Wastewater Reuse in Agriculture in the Moroccan Context. Energies, 2022, 15 (1), pp.156. ⟨10.3390/en15010156⟩. ⟨hal-03528220⟩
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