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European-wide simulations of croplands using an improved terrestrial biosphere model: 2. Interannual yields and anomalous CO 2 fluxes in 2003

P. Smith 1 Philippe Ciais 1, 2 P. Peylin 1, 3 N. de Noblet-Ducoudré 1, 4 N. Viovy 1, 3 Y. Meurdesoif 1, 5 Alberte Bondeau 6
2 ICOS-ATC - ICOS-ATC
LSCE - Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement [Gif-sur-Yvette] : DRF/LSCE
3 MOSAIC - Modélisation des Surfaces et Interfaces Continentales
LSCE - Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement [Gif-sur-Yvette] : DRF/LSCE
4 ESTIMR - Extrèmes : Statistiques, Impacts et Régionalisation
LSCE - Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement [Gif-sur-Yvette] : DRF/LSCE
5 CALCULS - Calcul Scientifique
LSCE - Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement [Gif-sur-Yvette] : DRF/LSCE
Abstract : Aiming at producing improved estimates of carbon source/sink spatial and interannual patterns across Europe (35% croplands), this work uses the ORCHIDEE-STICS terrestrial biosphere model including a more realistic representation of croplands, described in part 1 (Smith et al., 2010). Crop yield is derived from annual Net Primary Productivity and compared with wheat and grain maize harvest data for five European countries. Over a 34 year period, the best correlation coefficient obtained between observed and simulated yield time series is for irrigated maize in Italy (R = 0.73). In the data as well as in the model, 1976 and 2003 appear as climate anomalies causing a approximate to 40% yield drop in the most affected regions. Simulated interannual yield anomalies and the spatial pattern of the yield drop in 2003 are found to be more realistic than the results from ORCHIDEE with no representation of croplands. The simulated 2003 anomalous carbon source from European ecosystems to the atmosphere due to the 2003 summer heat wave is in good agreement with atmospheric inversions (0.20GtC, from May to October). The anomaly is twice too large in the ORCHIDEE alone simulation, owing to the unrealistically high exposure of herbaceous plants to the extreme summer conditions. The mechanisms linking abnormally high summer temperatures, the crop productivity drop, and significant carbon source from European ecosystems in 2003 are discussed. Overall, this study highlights the importance of accounting for the specific phenologies of crops sown both in winter and in spring and for irrigation applied to summer crops in regional/global models of the terrestrial carbon cycle.
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P. Smith, Philippe Ciais, P. Peylin, N. de Noblet-Ducoudré, N. Viovy, et al.. European-wide simulations of croplands using an improved terrestrial biosphere model: 2. Interannual yields and anomalous CO 2 fluxes in 2003. Journal of Geophysical Research, American Geophysical Union, 2010, 115 (G4), ⟨10.1029/2008JG000800⟩. ⟨hal-01788222⟩

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